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Arifulina S, Soltenborn C and Engels G (2012), "Coverage Criteria for Testing DMM Specifications", In Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Graph Transformation and Visual Modeling Techniques (GT-VMT 2012), Tallinn (Estonia). Vol. 47 European Association of Software Science and Technology (EASST).
Abstract: Behavioral modeling languages are most useful if their behavior is specified formally such that it can e.g. be analyzed and executed automatically. Obviously, the quality of such behavior specifications is crucial. The rule-based semantics specification technique Dynamic Meta Modeling (DMM) honors this by using the approach of Test-driven Semantics Specification (TDSS), which makes sure that the specification at hand at least describes the correct behavior for a suite of test models. However, in its current state TDSS does not provide any means to measure the quality of such a test suite.In this paper, we describe how we have applied the idea of test coverage to TDSS. Similar to common approaches of defining test coverage criteria, we describe a data structure called invocation graph containing possible orders of applications of DMM rules. Then we define different coverage criteria based on that data structure, taking the rule applications caused by the test suite's models into account. Our implementation of the described approach gives the language engineer using DMM a means to reason about the quality of the language's test suite, and also provides hints on how to improve that quality by adding dedicated test models to the test suite.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Arifulina2012a,
  author = {Svetlana Arifulina AND Christian Soltenborn AND Gregor Engels},
  editor = {A. Fish, L. Lambers},
  title = {Coverage Criteria for Testing DMM Specifications},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Graph Transformation and Visual Modeling Techniques (GT-VMT 2012), Tallinn (Estonia)},
  publisher = {European Association of Software Science and Technology (EASST)},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {47},
  url = {http://journal.ub.tu-berlin.de/eceasst/article/view/718/724}
}
Engels G, Heckel R and Sauer S (1999), "Dynamic Meta Modelling: A Graphical Approach to Operational Semantics", In Proceedings of the workshop on Rigorous Modeling and Analysis with the UML: Challenges and Limitations (satellite event of the Conference on Onject-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA 1999)), Denver, CO (USA).
Abstract: In this paper, dynamic meta modeling is proposed as a new approach to the operational semantics of behavioral UML diagrams. The dynamic meta model extends the well-known static meta model by a specification of the system's dynamics by means of collaboration diagrams.In this way, it is possible to define the behavior of UML diagrams within UML. The conceptual idea is inherited from Plotkin's structured operational semantics (SOS) paradigm, a style of semantics specification for concurrent programming languages and process calculi: Collaboration diagrams are used as deduction rules to specify a goal-oriented interpreter for the language. The approach is exemplified using a fragment of UML statechart and object diagrams.Formally, collaboration diagrams are interpreted as graph transformation rules. In this way, dynamic UML semantics can be both mathematically rigorous so as to enable formal specifications and proofs and, due to the use of UML notation, understandable without prior knowledge of heavy mathematic machinery. Thus, it can be used as a reference by tool developers, teachers, and advanced users.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Engels1999b,
  author = {Gregor Engels AND Reiko Heckel AND Stefan Sauer},
  title = {Dynamic Meta Modelling: A Graphical Approach to Operational Semantics},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the workshop on Rigorous Modeling and Analysis with the UML: Challenges and Limitations (satellite event of the Conference on Onject-Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages, and Applications (OOPSLA 1999)), Denver, CO (USA)},
  year = {1999}
}
Engels G and Soltenborn C (2010), "Test-driven Language Derivation with Graph Transformation-based Dynamic Meta Modeling", In Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Graph and Model Transformation (GraMoT 2010), Berlin (Germany). Vol. 30, pp. 240-257. European Association of Software Science and Technology.
Abstract: Deriving a new language LB from an already existing one LA is a typical task in domain-specific language engineering. Here, besides adjusting LA's syntax, the language engineer has to modify the semantics of LA to derive LB's semantics. Particularly, in case of behavioral modeling languages, this is a difficult and error-prone task, as changing the behavior of language elements or adding behavior for new elements might have undesired side effects.Therefore, we propose a test-driven language derivation process. In a first step, the language engineer creates example models containing the changed or newly added elements in different contexts. For each of these models, the language engineer also precisely describes the expected behavior. In a second step, each example model and its description of behavior is transformed into an executable test case. Finally, these test cases are used when deriving the actual semantics of LB - at any time, the language engineer can run the tests to verify whether the changes he performed on LA's semantics indeed produce the desired behavior. In this paper, we illustrate the approach using our graph transformation-based semantics specification technique Dynamic Meta Modeling. This is once more an example where the graph transformation approach shows its strengths and appropriateness to support software engineering tasks as, e.g.,model transformations, software specifications, or tool development.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{EngelsSoltenborn2010a,
  author = {Gregor Engels AND Christian Soltenborn},
  editor = {C. Ermel, H. Ehrig, F. Orejas, G. Taentzer},
  title = {Test-driven Language Derivation with Graph Transformation-based Dynamic Meta Modeling},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Graph and Model Transformation (GraMoT 2010), Berlin (Germany)},
  publisher = {European Association of Software Science and Technology},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {30},
  pages = {240--257}
}
Hausmann JH (2003), "Metamodeling Relations - Relating Metamodels", In Proceedings of the Metamodelling for MDA workshop, York (UK)., November, 2003. , pp. 147-161. University of York.
Abstract: Formalizing the relation between the different artifacts in asoftware development is the basis for transformations and consistencymaintenance.The Model Driven Architecture (MDA) proposes this kindof automated support for a multi-model approach to software development,but a technique for specifying these relations is not yet established.In this paper, we define an extension of a metamodeling languagefor specifying mappings between metamodels. The language allowsmappings to be expressed, independent of transformation directionand platform-specific implementations, and supports partial definitions.A concrete, visual syntax for this language has been previously proposed.This paper focuses on its metamodel definition.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hausmann2003a,
  author = {Jan Hendrik Hausmann},
  title = {Metamodeling Relations - Relating Metamodels},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Metamodelling for MDA workshop, York (UK)},
  publisher = {University of York},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {147--161}
}
Hausmann JH, Heckel R and Sauer S (2003), "Dynamic Meta Modeling with Time: Specifying the Semantics of Multimedia Sequence Diagrams", In Proceedings of the Workshop on Graph Transformation and Visual Modelling Techniques (GT-VMT 2002, satellite event of the International Conference on Graph Transformation (ICGT 2002)), Barcelona (Spain)., October, 2003. Vol. 72, pp. 133-144. Elsevier.
Abstract: The Unified Modeling Langugage (UML) offersdifferent diagram types to model the behavior ofsoftware systems. In some domains like embedded realtimesystems or multimedia systems, it is necessary to includespecifications of time in behavioral models since thecorrectness of these applications depends on the fulfillmentof temporal requirements in addition to functionalrequirements. UML thus already incorporates languagefeatures to model time and temporal constraints. Suchmodel elements must have an equivalent in the semanticdomain.We have proposed Dynamic Meta Modeling (DMM),an approach based on graph transformation, as a meansfor specifying operational semantics of dynamic UML diagrams.In this article, we extend this approach to alsoaccount for time by extending the semantic domain totimed graph transformation. This enables us to define theoperational semantics of UML diagrams with time speci-fications. As an example, we provide semantics for specialsequence diagrams from the domain of multimedia applicationmodeling.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hausmann2003b,
  author = {Jan Hendrik Hausmann AND Reiko Heckel AND Stefan Sauer},
  editor = {P. Bottoni, M. Minas},
  title = {Dynamic Meta Modeling with Time: Specifying the Semantics of Multimedia Sequence Diagrams},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop on Graph Transformation and Visual Modelling Techniques (GT-VMT 2002, satellite event of the International Conference on Graph Transformation (ICGT 2002)), Barcelona (Spain)},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {72},
  pages = {133-144},
  doi = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1571066104806170}
}
Hausmann JH, Heckel R and Sauer S (2000), "Ein Konzept zur anwendungsbezogenen UML-Semantikbeschreibung durch dynamische Metamodellierung", In Proceedings of the Workshop des Arbeitskreises GROOM der GI Fachgruppe 2.1.9 Objektorientierte Software-Entwicklung on Visuelle Verhaltensmodellierung verteilter und nebenläufiger Software-Systeme, Münster (Germany)., November, 2000.
Abstract: In diesem Beitrag stellen wir eine Methode zur Spezifikation der dynamischen Semantik von UML im Sinne einer Metamodellierung vor. Die dynamischeMetamodellierung verwendet dabei UMLKollaborationsdiagramme als eine dem Modellierer bekannte Notation. Diese werden durch eine Interpretation als Regeln einer graphischen operationalen Semantik (GOS) semantisch präzisiert.Die GOS-Formalisierung beruht dabei sowohl auf Konzepten von Graphtransformationen als auch dem Ansatz der Structured Operational Semantics.GOS-Regeln werden als Deduktionsregeln für die Spezifikation eines Interpreters betrachtet, der basierend auf einer Prolog-Ausführungsmaschine realisert werden soll.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HHS00,
  author = {Jan Hendrik Hausmann AND Reiko Heckel AND Stefan Sauer},
  editor = {H. Giese, S. Philippi},
  title = {Ein Konzept zur anwendungsbezogenen UML-Semantikbeschreibung durch dynamische Metamodellierung},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the Workshop des Arbeitskreises GROOM der GI Fachgruppe 2.1.9 Objektorientierte Software-Entwicklung on Visuelle Verhaltensmodellierung verteilter und nebenläufiger Software-Systeme, Münster (Germany)},
  year = {2000},
  note = {Workshop des Arbeitskreises GROOM der GI Fachgruppe 2.1.9 Objektorientierte Software-Entwicklung}
}
Heckel R and Sauer S (2000), "Dynamische Metamodellierung als Methode zur Definition einer operationalen Semantik für die UML", In Proceedings of the 7th GI-Workshop GROOM., May , 2000. Vol. 20, pp. 43-44. University of Koblenz-Landau.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HS00a,
  author = {Reiko Heckel AND Stefan Sauer},
  title = {Dynamische Metamodellierung als Methode zur Definition einer operationalen Semantik für die UML},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th GI-Workshop GROOM},
  publisher = {University of Koblenz-Landau},
  year = {2000},
  volume = {20},
  pages = {43--44},
  note = {Presented at 7th GI-Workshop GROOM}
}
Soltenborn C and Engels G (2007), "Analysis of UML Activities with Dynamic Meta Modeling Techniques", In Symposium "A Formal Semantics for UML" (satellite event of the MoDELS conference 2006), Genova (Italy). Berlin/Heidelberg Vol. 4364, pp. 329-330. Springer.
Abstract: Based on a semantics of UML Activities specified with the Dynamic Meta Modeling approach, we analyze the dynamic semantics of Activities at modeling time.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Soltenborn2006,
  author = {Christian Soltenborn AND Gregor Engels},
  editor = {T. Kühne},
  title = {Analysis of UML Activities with Dynamic Meta Modeling Techniques},
  booktitle = {Symposium "A Formal Semantics for UML" (satellite event of the MoDELS conference 2006), Genova (Italy)},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {4364},
  pages = {329--330},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69489-2_42}
}
Soltenborn C and Engels G (2009), "Towards Generalizing Visual Process Pattern", In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Visual Formalisms for Patterns (VFfP 2009), Corvallis, OR (USA). Vol. 25 European Association of Software Science and Technology.
Abstract: Visual Process Pattern (VPP) is a visual language to describe constraints on the behavior of UML Activities. They have been developed for the sake of formulating and verifying requirements on business process models (with Activities being one possible description language). In the VPP approach, a visual pattern is translated into an LTL formula, which can then be verified against a transition system describing the behavior of the Activity under consideration.In this paper, we aim at generalizing VPP. We show how to formulate patterns more generally, using either concrete or abstract syntax of the behavioral model under consideration. Additionally, we describe how these more general patterns can be verified against a model's behavior.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Soltenborn2009c,
  author = {Christian Soltenborn AND Gregor Engels},
  editor = {P. Bottoni, E. Guerra, J. de Lara, T. Margaria, J. Padberg, G. Taentzer},
  title = {Towards Generalizing Visual Process Pattern},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Visual Formalisms for Patterns (VFfP 2009), Corvallis, OR (USA)},
  publisher = {European Association of Software Science and Technology},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {25}
}