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Böcker, J., Huber, T., Romaus, C. and Specht, A. Elektromobilität in Paderborn -- Kerntechnologien für Automobile von morgen 2011 ForschungsForum Paderborn
Vol. 14 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{BoeckerHuberRomausEtAl2011,
  author = {Joachim Böcker and Tobias Huber and Christoph Romaus and Andreas Specht},
  title = {Elektromobilität in Paderborn -- Kerntechnologien für Automobile von morgen},
  journal = {ForschungsForum Paderborn},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {14}
}
Böcker, J., Bösing, M., Bredehorn, M., Canders, W.-R., Cebulski, B., Doetsch, P., Doncker, R.D., Kashani, O.F., Friedrich, B., Grube, T., Hameyer, K., Hennen, M., Hoffmann, K., Hofmann, W., Iles, D., Kreim, A., Lunz, B., Lutz, J., März, M., Mertens, A., Neef, C., Peters, W., Rehtanz, C., Rolink, J., Sauer, D.U., Schäfer, U., Schäfer, H., Schmülling, B., Schöning, M., Stolten, D., v. Treek, D., Wermuth, M., Wittler, M. and Wirth, R. VDE Studie Elektrofahrzeuge -- Bedeutung, Stand der Technik, Handlungsbedarf 2010 School: VDEwww.vde.com  booklet  
BibTeX:
@booklet{TaskforceElektrofahrzeuge2010,
  author = {J. Böcker and M. Bösing and M. Bredehorn and W.-R Canders and B. Cebulski and P. Doetsch and R. De Doncker and O. F. Kashani and B. Friedrich and Th. Grube and K. Hameyer and M. Hennen and K. Hoffmann and W. Hofmann and D. Iles and A. Kreim and B. Lunz and J. Lutz and M. März and A. Mertens and Ch. Neef and W. Peters and Ch. Rehtanz and J. Rolink and D. U. Sauer and U. Schäfer and H. Schäfer and B. Schmülling and M. Schöning and D. Stolten and D. v. Treek and M. Wermuth and M. Wittler and R. Wirth},
  title = {VDE Studie Elektrofahrzeuge -- Bedeutung, Stand der Technik, Handlungsbedarf},
  school = {VDE},
  year = {2010}
}
Adelt, P., Donoth, J., Gausemeier, J., Geisler, J., Henkler, S., Kahl, S., Klöpper, B., Krupp, A., Münch, E., Oberthür, S., Paiz, C., Podlogar, H., Porrmann, M., Radkowski, R., Romaus, C., Schmidt, A., Schulz, B., Vöcking, H., Witkowski, U., Witting, K. and Znamenshchykov, O. Selbstoptimierende Systeme des Maschinenbaus -- Definitionen, Anwendungen, Konzepte. 2008
Vol. Band 234 
book  
BibTeX:
@book{SFB_SOSysteme2008,
  author = {Adelt, P. and Donoth, J. and Gausemeier, J. and Geisler, J. and Henkler, S. and Kahl, S. and Klöpper, B. and Krupp, A. and Münch, E. and Oberthür, S. and Paiz, C. and Podlogar, H. and Porrmann, M. and Radkowski, R. and Romaus, C. and Schmidt, A. and Schulz, B. and Vöcking, H. and Witkowski, U. and Witting, K. and Znamenshchykov, O.},
  title = {Selbstoptimierende Systeme des Maschinenbaus -- Definitionen, Anwendungen, Konzepte.},
  publisher = {HNI-Verlagsschriftenreihe},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {Band 234},
  note = {ISBN 978-3-939350-53-8}
}
Böcker, J. Advanced Hysteresis Control of Brushless DC Motors 2004 Deutsch-Koreanisches Symposium, Aachen,Deutsch-Koreanisches Symposium  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2004a,
  author = {Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Advanced Hysteresis Control of Brushless DC Motors},
  booktitle = {Deutsch-Koreanisches Symposium},
  journal = {Deutsch-Koreanisches Symposium, Aachen,},
  year = {2004}
}
Böcker, J. Tolerance Band Controller for a Three-Level Four-Quadrant Converter Including DC Link Balancing 2004 PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany.35th Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2004b,
  author = {Böcker, J.},
  title = {Tolerance Band Controller for a Three-Level Four-Quadrant Converter Including DC Link Balancing},
  booktitle = {35th Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)},
  journal = {PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany.},
  year = {2004}
}
Böcker, J. Aktive Lenkung der Achsen eines Straßenbahndrehgestells mit Einzelradantrieben 2006 Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut, Universität PaderbornWorkshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme  inproceedings  
Abstract: Zusammenfassung Bei Schienenfahrzeugen mit Drehgestellen kommt es
in Kurven prinzipbedingt zu einer Fehlstellung der Achsen. Diese
sind dann nicht radial ausgerichtet, was im Nahverkehr, wo besonders
kleine Kurvenradien anzutreffen sind, zu hohem Querschlupf führt,
der mit Quietschen und starkem Verschleiß einhergeht. Eine radiale
Ausrichtung würde den Verschleiß reduzieren und damit den Wartungsbedarf
und die Stillstandszeiten verringern. Die radiale Ausrichtung setzt
voraus, dass die einzelne Achse im Drehgestell einen zusätzlichen
Drehfreiheitsgrad um ihre Hochachse erhält. Die radiale Einstellung
könnte durch einen separaten Aktuator bewerkstelligt werden.
Ist das Fahrzeug jedoch aus Gründen der Niederflurkonstruktion
ohnehin mit Einzelradantrieben ausgerüstet, kann ein Gierdrehmoment
zur Achslenkung ohne zusätzlichen Aktuator direkt durch die elektrischen
Fahrantriebe mittels unterschiedliche Traktionskräfte für
das rechte und linke Rad erzeugt werden. Für die Regelung des
Lenkwinkels ist es erforderlich, die Kurvenkrümmung zu kennen.
Diese kann aus Messung der Drehrate des Drehgestells gewonnen werden.
Die Achsregelung erfordert verhältnismäßig wenig algorithmischen
Aufwand und kann weitgehend innerhalb der vorhandenen Leittechnik
realisiert werden.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2006,
  author = {Böcker, J.},
  title = {Aktive Lenkung der Achsen eines Straßenbahndrehgestells mit Einzelradantrieben},
  booktitle = {Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme},
  journal = {Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2006}
}
Böcker, J., Amann, N. and Schulz, B. Active Suppression of Torsional Oscillations 2004 3rd IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, Sydney,3rd IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2004,
  author = {Joachim Böcker and Notker Amann and Bernd Schulz},
  title = {Active Suppression of Torsional Oscillations},
  booktitle = {3rd IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems},
  journal = {3rd IFAC Symposium on Mechatronic Systems, Sydney,},
  year = {2004}
}
Böcker, J. and Buchholz, O. Can oversampling improve the dynamics of PWM controls? 2013 Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2013 IEEE International Conference on, pp. 1818-1824  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Regular Sampling is the state of the art when employing digital discrete-time
control to pulse width-modulated systems. However, the fact that
the dynamics of discrete-time control is below that of an analog
continuous-time control is often not being aware. The paper shows
that digital control dynamics can be improved with oversampling,
i.e. employing a higher rate for sampling and controller updating
as with Regular Sampling without increasing the pulse frequency.
As a result, it is shown that already an oversampling rate of about
8 to 16 provides approximately the same dynamics of a continuous-time
control. The benefits of even higher oversampling rates are of minor
significance, which can be understood as a clear design recommendation.
Though the consideration is carried out with a simplified circuitry,
the results are of general meaning and can be transferred easily
to application in the area of drive control or switched-mode power
supplies.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BoeckerBuchholz2013,
  author = {Joachim Böcker and Oleg Buchholz},
  title = {Can oversampling improve the dynamics of PWM controls?},
  booktitle = {Industrial Technology (ICIT), 2013 IEEE International Conference on},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1818-1824},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ICIT.2013.6505952}
}
Böcker, J., Huber, T., Romaus, C., Specht, A. and Wallscheid, O. Kluge Köpfe unter Strom: Elektro- und Informationstechnik an der Universität Paderborn 2011 Ingenieurwissenschaften Deutschland - Zukunft & Faszination der Elektro- und Informationstechnik, pp. 274-281  inproceedings URL 
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BoeckerHuberRomausEtAl2011a,
  author = {Joachim Böcker and Tobias Huber and Christoph Romaus and Andreas Specht and Oliver Wallscheid},
  title = {Kluge Köpfe unter Strom: Elektro- und Informationstechnik an der Universität Paderborn},
  booktitle = {Ingenieurwissenschaften Deutschland - Zukunft & Faszination der Elektro- und Informationstechnik},
  publisher = {Institut für Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen, VDE/ZVEI},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {274-281},
  url = {http://www.institut-wv.de/fileadmin/iwv_files/pdf/096-213_Zukunft_Faszination.pdf}
}
Böcker, J. and Kröger, C. Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Dual-Mode Position Estimation 2005 EPE 2005Dresden, Deutschland.11th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2005,
  author = {Böcker, J. and Kröger, C.},
  title = {Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Dual-Mode Position Estimation},
  booktitle = {11th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  journal = {EPE 2005Dresden, Deutschland.},
  year = {2005}
}
Böcker, J. and Mathapati, S. State of the Art of Induction Motor Control 2007 IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference 2007, AntalyaInternational Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—The induction motor is well known as the workhorse of industry.
The development of variable speed induction motor drives has a long
history of more than four decades. Today’s sophisticated industrial
drives are the result of the extensive research and development during
the last decades. In this paper the historical and recent developments
and major milestones in control of induction motors are pointed out
first and second how research results were translated into today’s
industrial standards, and third at last, what are the current trends
in research and industry are summarized.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2007,
  author = {J. Böcker and S. Mathapati},
  title = {State of the Art of Induction Motor Control},
  booktitle = {International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC)},
  journal = {IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference 2007, Antalya},
  year = {2007}
}
Böcker, J., Schulz, B., Knoke, T. and Fröhleke, N. Self-Optimization as a Framework for Advanced Control Systems 2006 Int. Electronics Conference (IECON), November 2006, Paris, Frankreich32nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract Optimization is a usual step of control design. To do so,
clear design goals have to be defined and sufficient system information
must be given as prerequisites. However, data are often inaccurate
or missing and design goals may change during operation. That is
why a concept of self-optimizing systems is proposed, which is able
to optimize the system even during operation. The proposed concept
should be understood as a framework to incorporate various control
and optimization methods. A key element of the proposal is the Operator
Controller Module, which consists of a cognitive part for planning
tasks with lower realtime requirements and a reflective part for
the execution level. A particular focus is given to how to handle
multi-objective optimization with on-line adaptation of the objectives
depending on internal and external design goals. Examples how to
employ the concept in practice are given.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2006a,
  author = {Böcker, J. and Schulz, B. and Knoke, T. and Fröhleke, N.},
  title = {Self-Optimization as a Framework for Advanced Control Systems},
  booktitle = {32nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  journal = {Int. Electronics Conference (IECON), November 2006, Paris, Frankreich},
  year = {2006}
}
Böcker, J. Discrete-Event Converter Control 2003 10th European Conference on Power Electronis and Applications (EPE 2003)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Hysteresis control is a fast and robust control approach but it is
mostly applied only to simple converter systems. Considering such
controllers as discrete-event systems opens a more systematic view
and enables the controller design even for complex converter systems
like a multi-system auxiliary converter as presented here. The controller
is realized without any processor only on a FPGA device.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Boecker2003,
  author = {Böcker, J.},
  title = {Discrete-Event Converter Control},
  booktitle = {10th European Conference on Power Electronis and Applications (EPE 2003)},
  year = {2003}
}
Böcker, J., Beineke, S. and Bähr, A. On the control bandwidth of servo drives 2009 Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on, pp. 1-10  inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper, the control performance of servo drives is being investigated.
In this context, particular focus is put on the achievable control
bandwidth, dependant on the chosen design parameters such as sampling
rate, sampling strategy, and filter constants.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BoeckerBeineke2013,
  author = {Böcker, J. and Beineke, S. and Bähr, A.},
  title = {On the control bandwidth of servo drives},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1-10}
}
Böcker, J., Huber, T., Meyer, M., Peters, W., Pohlenz, D. and Specht, A. Regelung elektrischer Traktionsantriebe in Elektro- und Hybridfahrzeugen 2010 at – Automatisierungstechnik
Vol. 58(10), pp. 599-608 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{BoeckerHuberMeyerEtAl2010,
  author = {Joachim Böcker and Tobias Huber and Michael Meyer and Wilhelm Peters and Daniel Pohlenz and Andreas Specht},
  title = {Regelung elektrischer Traktionsantriebe in Elektro- und Hybridfahrzeugen},
  journal = {at – Automatisierungstechnik},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {58},
  number = {10},
  pages = {599-608},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1524/auto.2010.0871}
}
Beineke, S., Baehr, A. and Böcker, J. Theoretisch und praktisch erreichbare Regelgüte von Servoantrieben 2010 antriebstechnik  article  
Abstract: Die Regelungsqualität eines Servoreglers wird in Marketing und Vertrieb
anhand charakteristischer Kennwerte beurteilt. Wettbewerber aus dem
asiatischen Raum werben häufig mit hohen Bandbreiten des Drehzahlregelkreises.
Europäische Hersteller führen kurze Abtastzeiten für die Regelkreise
als Gütekriterium an und werben mit Abtastfrequenzen von 32 kHz im
Stromregelkreis. Von Kundenseite werden diese Kennwerte als Gütekriterien
aufgegriffen, obwohl sie für den Anwender aus dem Maschinenbau nur
unter idealen Voraussetzungen Aussagekraft haben. Da die

realen Verhältnisse an einer Produktionsmaschine oder Anlage wesentlich
ungünstiger sind, sollen in diesem Beitrag die Zusammenhänge zwischen
den genannten Kennwerten und der tatsächlich erzielbaren Regelungsperformanz
für den Anwender transparent gemacht werden.
BibTeX:
@article{Beineke2011,
  author = {Beineke, Stefan and Baehr, Alexander and Böcker, Joachim},
  title = {Theoretisch und praktisch erreichbare Regelgüte von Servoantrieben},
  journal = {antriebstechnik},
  year = {2010}
}
Böcker, J., Sun, M., Cao, Z., Tong, L., Zou, H. and Ranjan, P. High Fidelity Hybrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator with FPGA and Processor for AC Railway Traction 2012 PCIM 2012  inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper, a high fidelity hybrid real time hardware-in-the-loop
(HiL) simulator using FPGA and real time processor is introduced
and its application on an AC railway vehicle traction system composed
of power electronic converter and induction motor is reported. By
a novel computation load balancing, a reduced FPGA resource consumption
and reduced delay introduced by HiL can be achieved. The closed-loop
experiment with a three-phase induction motor controller shows that
the proposed hybrid solution obtained almost the same computing precision
as that of a pure FPGA HiL simulator.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BoeckerSunCao2012,
  author = {Joachim Böcker and Meng Sun and Cao, Z. and Tong, L. and Zou, H. and Ranjan, P.},
  title = {High Fidelity Hybrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator with FPGA and Processor for AC Railway Traction},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2012},
  year = {2012}
}
Bolte, S., Baurichter, J., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Figge, H. Verlustmodellierung und Effizienzoptimierung einer hart schaltenden, netzfreundlichen Pulsgleichrichterstufe (PFC) 2013 Internationaler ETG-Kongress  inproceedings  
Abstract: Die sogenannte Totem-Pole-Topologie stellt eine kostengünstige und
elektrisch hocheffiziente Schaltungstopologie für

die netzfreundliche Gleichrichterstufe eines On-Board Ladegerätes
dar. Die Verfügbarkeit von Siliziumkarbid MOS-

FETs ermöglicht erstmals den stromkontinuierlichen Betrieb dieser
Schaltungstopologie. In diesem Beitrag wird die

Verlustmodellierung einer hart schaltenden, netzfreundlichen Pulsgleichrichterstufe
in Totem-Pole-Topologie und die

Optimierung der PFC-Drossel vorgestellt.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BolteBaurichter2013,
  author = {Sven Bolte and Jan Baurichter and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker and Heiko Figge},
  title = {Verlustmodellierung und Effizienzoptimierung einer hart schaltenden, netzfreundlichen Pulsgleichrichterstufe (PFC)},
  booktitle = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress},
  year = {2013}
}
Bolte, S., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Efficiency optimization for a power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with gallium nitride transistor 2015 Proc. IEEE 3rd Workshop Wide Bandgap Power Devices and Applications (WiPDA), pp. 220-223  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bolte2015,
  author = {S. Bolte and N. Fröhleke and J. Böcker},
  title = {Efficiency optimization for a power factor correction (PFC) rectifier with gallium nitride transistor},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE 3rd Workshop Wide Bandgap Power Devices and Applications (WiPDA)},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {220--223},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/WiPDA.2015.7369288}
}
Bolte, S., Froehleke, N. and Boecker, J. Isolated On-Board DC-DC Converter for Power Distribution Systems in Electric Vehicles 2016 Proc. Renewable Energy and Energy Management PCIM Europe 2016; Int. Exhibition and Conf. for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, pp. 1-7  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bolte2016b,
  author = {S. Bolte and N. Froehleke and J. Boecker},
  title = {Isolated On-Board DC-DC Converter for Power Distribution Systems in Electric Vehicles},
  booktitle = {Proc. Renewable Energy and Energy Management PCIM Europe 2016; Int. Exhibition and Conf. for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1--7}
}
Bolte, S., Speerschneider, A., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. A comparison of on-board chargers for electric vehicles with variable DC-link voltage 2015 Proc. IEEE Int Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE) Conf, pp. 1-5  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bolte2015a,
  author = {S. Bolte and A. Speerschneider and N. Fröhleke and J. Böcker},
  title = {A comparison of on-board chargers for electric vehicles with variable DC-link voltage},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE) Conf},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {1--5},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/SEGE.2015.7324598}
}
Boxnick, S., Klöpfer, S., Romaus, C. and Klöpper, B. Multiobjective Search for the Management of a Hybrid Energy Storage System 2010 8^th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)  inproceedings URL 
Abstract: Self-optimizing mechatronic systems are a new class of technical systems
which are able to autonomously reason about their objectives and
to select appropriate behavior adaptations with regard to their current
environment and changing requirements. Obviously, reasoning and changing
the system’s behavior during operation is a time critical task. Thus,
it is´usually not possible to explore all possible behaviors and
evaluate them regarding various objectives. To reduce this effort,
the set of nondominated solutions, the Pareto set, can be computed
in advance and thus the effort of adapting the system behavior is
reduced to a decision making process. This paper introduces a search
based approach to approximate the Pareto set with a multi objective
search algorithm. The algorithm is designed for the management of
a hybrid energy storage module in a rail-bound vehicle where the
two contradicting objectives of maximizing the power reserve to maintain
robust against unexpected power peaks and minimizing the deterioration
of the storages have to be optimized simultaneously.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BoxnickKloepferRomausKloepper2010,
  author = {SImon Boxnick and Stefan Klöpfer and Christoph Romaus and Benjamin Klöpper},
  title = {Multiobjective Search for the Management of a Hybrid Energy Storage System},
  booktitle = {8^th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN)},
  year = {2010},
  url = {http://indin2010.ist.osaka-u.ac.jp/}
}
Buchholz, O. and Böcker, J. FPGA-Based Dynamically Reconfigurable Control of Induction Motor Drives 2013 IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society  inproceedings  
Abstract: Field-oriented control has become state-of-the-art in AC drives. Nevertheless
it is undisputed that other control approaches like the direct torque
control can outperform the field-oriented control in some operating
conditions, e.g. in terms of torque dynamics or voltage utilization
in the flux weakening region. Therefore, this paper’s purpose is
to demonstrate the potential of a dynamically reconfigurable control,
which can, depending on the current operating situation, switch between
different controllers depending on the particular situation in order
to improve the control performance within the entire operating region.
The possible reconfiguration approaches as well as the constraints
which have to be considered while switching between the different
controllers are presented and validated on an induction motor test
bench. As a result, it is shown that by suitably combining of the
very well known basic control approaches, an improved control behavior
in the whole operating region can be achieved without the need of
modifying them in order to enhance control approach specific deficiencies.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Buchholz2013,
  author = {Buchholz, O. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {FPGA-Based Dynamically Reconfigurable Control of Induction Motor Drives},
  booktitle = {IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2013}
}
Buchholz, O., Mathapathi, S. and Böcker, J. Boosting Dynamics of AC Machines by using FPGA-Based Controls 2012 PCIM 2012  inproceedings  
Abstract: The main focus of the following contribution is to point out the advantages
of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) as a realization platform
for AC machine controls in comparison to state-of-the-art Digital
Signal Processor (DSP) based controls. Initially some important details
of DSP based controls and the calculation of the achievable control
bandwidth as a function of the chosen design parameters (e.g. sampling
rate and strategy) are presented. It will be pointed out which constraints
of DSP based realization lead to a limited control bandwidth. On
the basis of the extracted results the FPGA-based quasi-continuous
control is introduced and it is shown how the control bandwidth can
be increased even if the switching frequency of the pulse width modulation
(PWM) module is kept constant.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BuchholzMathapati2012,
  author = {Buchholz, O. and Mathapathi, S. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Boosting Dynamics of AC Machines by using FPGA-Based Controls},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2012},
  year = {2012}
}
Cao, Z. Model-Based Development of DC-DC-Converters with Wide Operation Range and High Dynamics 2014 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Cao2014,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao},
  title = {Model-Based Development of DC-DC-Converters with Wide Operation Range and High Dynamics},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2014}
}
Cao, Z., Böcker, J., Fröhleke, N., Fu, C. and Tong, L. State of the Art of Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Technology for Rail Vehicles 2010 PCIM 2010  inproceedings  
Abstract: Due to the increased complexity of the control system in modern locomotives
real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation is of considerable importance
for controller design and integration test of the complete control
system. In this contribution the general structure of the electrical
traction drive systems of locomotives and the principal requirements
for simulation of such systems in real-time mode are introduced first,
and then the state of the art of simulator hardware, modeling technique
and numerical computation are reviewed, and third of all technical
trends are pointed out.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2010,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Joachim Böcker and Norbert Fröhleke and Chengjun Fu and Laisheng Tong},
  title = {State of the Art of Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Technology for Rail Vehicles},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2010},
  year = {2010}
}
Cao, Z., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Converter and control design for very low-frequency high-voltage test systems 2009 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2009. ECCE 2009. IEEE, pp. 2168-2175  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: With the rapid growth in energy generation supplied by regenerative
and decentralized sources the supplying cabling grid is increasing.
Therefore, a large demand on mobile high-voltage cable test systems
results in the coming years. This paper deals with the development
of a LCC resonant converter-based power supply scheme and the control
strategy for generating an 85 kV (RMS) sinusoidal test voltage at
very low frequency of 0.1 Hz. The resonant converter is designed
based on steady state AC analysis and verified through simulation
and experiments based on a prototyping system. In order to substitute
voluminous and costly sensors in high-voltage circuitry a novel cascaded
control strategy using an observer is developed. The control strategy
is implemented and verified by experimental tests.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2009,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Converter and control design for very low-frequency high-voltage test systems},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2009. ECCE 2009. IEEE},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2168-2175},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2009.5316441}
}
Cao, Z., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Control design for a very low-frequency high-voltage test system 2009 Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on, pp. 1-10  inproceedings  
Abstract: In recent two decades the application of high voltage test systems
using the concept of very low frequency is more and more accepted
by industries. This contribution deals with the control design for
a novel high voltage test system generating a true sinus test voltage
of 85 kV (RMS) at 0.1 Hz based on a zero-voltage switched LCC-resonant
converter and a 3-stage Cockcroft Walton voltage multiplier rectifier.
The cascade control strategy using an output current observer enables
substitution of voluminous and costly high-voltage current sensors.
The true sinus test generator was implemented and verified by experimental
tests, affirming the optimum choice of the topology for the demanding
requirements and indicating a better THD-quality of the test voltage
as compared to previous solutions.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2009a,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Control design for a very low-frequency high-voltage test system},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1-10}
}
Cao, Z., Fröhlekea, N. and Böcker, J. Design of a Resonant Converter for Very Low-Frequency High-Voltage Test Systems 2009 PCIM China 2009  inproceedings  
Abstract: With the rapid growth of decentralized energy generation from renewable
resources, the connecting high-voltage cabling grid is also increasing.
Therefore, a large demand on mobile high-voltage cable test systems
results in the coming years. This paper deals with the development
of a LCC resonant converter-based power supply scheme generating
an 85 kV (RMS) sinusoidal test voltage at very low frequency of 0.1
Hz for testing of high voltage cables. The resonant converter is
designed based on steady state AC analysis. The results are verified
with experimental investigations conducted on a prototyping system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2009b,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Norbert Fröhlekea and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Design of a Resonant Converter for Very Low-Frequency High-Voltage Test Systems},
  booktitle = {PCIM China 2009},
  year = {2009}
}
Cao, Z., Hu, M., Frohleke, N. and Bocker, J. Modeling and Control Design for a Very Low-Frequency High-Voltage Test System 2010 Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
Vol. 25(4), pp. 1068-1077 
article DOI  
Abstract: With the rapid growth of energy generation by regenerative decentralized
sources and the continuous replacement of overhead power lines by
subterraneous distribution grids, the amount of power supply cables
is increasing. In consequence, a large demand for mobile high-voltage
cable test systems is expected within the coming years. This contribution
deals with modeling and control design of a novel high-voltage test
system based on a zero-voltage switching series-parallel resonant
converter and a three-stage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier rectifier,
generating a true sinus test voltage of 85 kV (rms) at 0.1 Hz. Due
to the inherent high dynamics of the power supply as compared to
the slowly varying output test voltage, a cascaded control scheme
relying on a fast inner current control loop combined with an outer
voltage control is established. In order to derive the relevant waveforms,
the complex rectifier was significantly simplified to a one-stage
voltage doubler rectifier. By applying a suitable generalized averaging
method in combination with an extended describing function, a steady-state
solution along with the corresponding small signal model can be established,
which is utilized for the current control design. The cascaded control
strategy using an observer enables substitution of voluminous and
costly high-voltage current sensors. The total high-voltage test
system was implemented and validated by experimental tests.
BibTeX:
@article{CaoHu2010,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Manli Hu and Frohleke, N. and Bocker, J.},
  title = {Modeling and Control Design for a Very Low-Frequency High-Voltage Test System},
  journal = {Power Electronics, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {25},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1068-1077},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2009.2033600}
}
Cao, Z., Nzeugang, F., Fröhleke, N. and J. Böcker, J. A comparative study of series-parallel resonant converter by using different modulation strategies 2011 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON2011)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2011,
  author = {Cao, Z. and Nzeugang, F.H. and Fröhleke, N. and J. Böcker, J.},
  title = {A comparative study of series-parallel resonant converter by using different modulation strategies},
  booktitle = {37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON2011)},
  year = {2011}
}
Cao, Z., Nzeugang, F., Tao, J., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Novel dynamical modeling for series-parallel resonant converter 2012 Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 414-419  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Extended describing function method is one of the commonly applied
state-of-the-art methods for dynamical modeling of series-parallel
resonant power converters. Thanks to the relative good sinusoidal
voltage waveform across the parallel capacitor Cp it has a good modeling
accuracy under light and medium load conditions. However, under heavy
load condition this method becomes inaccurate due to the distortion
of the voltage across Cp. Sampled-data method provides a much higher
modeling accuracy, but its modeling complexity and computational
effort are too high. In this contribution a novel dynamical model
for series-parallel resonant converter is proposed, which is simpler
than sampled-data method, but provides a considerable enhancement
on modeling accuracy. Large- and small-signal behaviors predicted
by the novel dynamical model are verified by circuit simulation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2012a,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Nzeugang, F.H. and Junbing Tao and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Novel dynamical modeling for series-parallel resonant converter},
  booktitle = {Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2012 IEEE International Symposium on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {414-419},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE.2012.6237122}
}
Cao, Z., Tao, J., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Dynamical modeling for series-parallel resonant converter under optimized modulation 2013 Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2013 Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE, pp. 1391-1398  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2013,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Junbing Tao and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Dynamical modeling for series-parallel resonant converter under optimized modulation},
  booktitle = {Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), 2013 Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1391-1398},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/APEC.2013.6520481}
}
Cao, Z., Tao, J., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Time-domain steady-state modeling of series-parallel resonant converter under optimized modulation 2012 IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 814-820  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In this contribution the frequency-domain modeling techniques for
resonant converters under optimized modulation are reviewed. As a
general modeling technique, the standard AC fundamental harmonic
approach is suitable for all resonant converter topologies. However,
it becomes inaccurate if the current or voltage of the resonant tank
is distorted from sinusoidal waveform. The extended AC fundamental
harmonic approach provides a much higher modeling accuracy, but it
lacks generality. In order to overcome these drawbacks a general,
systematic time-domain modeling procedure with high modeling accuracy
is introduced and demonstrated by a series-parallel resonant converter
with LC output-filter under optimized modulation. Verification with
experimental results is given.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Cao2012,
  author = {Zhiyu Cao and Junbing Tao and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Time-domain steady-state modeling of series-parallel resonant converter under optimized modulation},
  booktitle = {IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {814-820},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2012.6388646}
}
DellAere, A., Hirsch, M., Klöpper, B., Koester, M., Krupp, A., Krüger, M., Müller, T., Oberthür, S., Pook, S., Priesterjahn, C., Romaus, C., Schmidt, A., Sondermann-Wölke, C., Tichy, M., Vöcking, H. and Zimmer, D. Verlässlichkeit selbstoptimierender Systeme - Potenziale nutzen und Risiken vermeiden 2008
Vol. Band 235 
book  
BibTeX:
@book{SFB_Verlaesslichkeit2008,
  author = {DellAere, Alessandro and Hirsch, Martin and Klöpper, Benjamin and Koester, Markus and Krupp, Alexander and Krüger, Martin and Müller, Thomas and Oberthür, Simon and Pook, Sebastian and Priesterjahn, Claudia and Romaus, Christoph and Schmidt, Alexander and Sondermann-Wölke, Christoph and Tichy, Matthias and Vöcking, Henner and Zimmer, Detmar},
  title = {Verlässlichkeit selbstoptimierender Systeme - Potenziale nutzen und Risiken vermeiden},
  publisher = {HNI-Verlagsschriftenreihe},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {Band 235},
  note = {ISBN 978-3-939350-72-9}
}
Dumitrescu, R., Gausemeier, J. and Romaus, C. Towards the Design of Cognitive Functions in Self-Optimizing Systems exemplified by a Hybrid Energy Storage System 2009 10^th International Workshop on Research and Education in Mechatronics (REM)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DumitrescuGausemeierRomaus2009,
  author = {Roman Dumitrescu and Jürgen Gausemeier and Christoph Romaus},
  title = {Towards the Design of Cognitive Functions in Self-Optimizing Systems exemplified by a Hybrid Energy Storage System},
  booktitle = {10^th International Workshop on Research and Education in Mechatronics (REM)},
  year = {2009}
}
Dumitrescu, R., Gausemeier, J. and Romaus, C. Towards the Design of Cognitive Functions in Self-Optimizing Systems exemplified by a Hybrid Energy Storage System 2011 Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering
Vol. 225(5), pp. 563-575 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{DumitrescuGausemeierRomaus2011,
  author = {Roman Dumitrescu and Jürgen Gausemeier and Christoph Romaus},
  title = {Towards the Design of Cognitive Functions in Self-Optimizing Systems exemplified by a Hybrid Energy Storage System},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {225},
  number = {5},
  pages = {563--575},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1177/0959651811398851}
}
Figge, H., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Schafmeister, F. Cost-Effective Implementation of a Digitally Controlled LLC Resonant Converter for Application in Server- and Telecom-PSUs 2012 PCIM 2012  inproceedings  
Abstract: The LLC resonant converter has become very popular for use in high
efficient DC-DC converters in past years. Whereas the good efficiency
of the LLC converter was demonstrated before, the design engineer
is faced now with the problem of a cost-effective and reliable implementation
of the LLC converter for the purpose of mass production and broad
applicability. In this paper a cost-effective design variant is presented,
which combines the digital control facilities of a low cost DSP and
his peripheral PWM features with the critical control needs of the
synchronous rectification (SR), thereby dealing with the parasitic
effects that complicate turn-off instant sensing via RDSon voltage
drop of the rectifier MOSFETs. Additionally an adaptive voltage controlling
approach is presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Figge2012,
  author = {Heiko Figge and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker and Frank Schafmeister},
  title = {Cost-Effective Implementation of a Digitally Controlled LLC Resonant Converter for Application in Server- and Telecom-PSUs},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2012},
  year = {2012}
}
Figge, H., Fröhleke, N., Schafmeister, F. and Ide, P. Paralleling of LLC Resonant Converters using Frequency Controlled Current Balancing 2008 DPEC Seminar  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{FiggeFroehlekeEtAl2008,
  author = {Heiko Figge and Norbert Fröhleke and Frank Schafmeister and Peter Ide},
  title = {Paralleling of LLC Resonant Converters using Frequency Controlled Current Balancing},
  booktitle = {DPEC Seminar},
  year = {2008}
}
Figge, H., Grote, T., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Ide, P. Paralleling of LLC resonant converters using frequency controlled current balancing 2008 39th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{FiggeGroteEtAl2008,
  author = {Heiko Figge and Tobias Grote and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker and Peter Ide},
  title = {Paralleling of LLC resonant converters using frequency controlled current balancing},
  booktitle = {39th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC)},
  year = {2008}
}
Figge, H., Grote, T., Froehleke, N., Böcker, J. and Schafmeister, F. Overcurrent Protection for the LLC Resonant Converter with Improved Hold-Up Time 2011
Vol. Twenty-Sixth Annual IEEEApplied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), pp. 13-20 
inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Figge2011,
  author = {Figge, H. and Grote, T. and Froehleke, N. and Böcker, J. and Schafmeister, F.},
  title = {Overcurrent Protection for the LLC Resonant Converter with Improved Hold-Up Time},
  booktitle = {Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {Twenty-Sixth Annual IEEE},
  pages = {13-20}
}
Flaskamp, K., Ringkamp, M., Schneider, T., Schulte, C., Ober-Bløbaum, S. and Böcker, J. Berechnung optimaler Stromprofile für einen 6-phasigen geschalteten Reluktanzantrieb 2011 Wissenschaftsforum Intelligente Technische Systeme  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Flasskamp2011,
  author = {Flaskamp, K and Ringkamp, M and Schneider, T. and Schulte, C. and Ober-Bløbaum, S. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Berechnung optimaler Stromprofile für einen 6-phasigen geschalteten Reluktanzantrieb},
  booktitle = {Wissenschaftsforum Intelligente Technische Systeme},
  year = {2011}
}
Flaßkamp, K., Ober-Blöbaum, S., Schneider, T. and Böcker, J. Optimal Control of a Switched Reluctance Drive by a Direct Method Using a Discrete Variational Principle 2013 52^nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{FlasskampOberBloebaumSchneiderEtAl2013,
  author = {Kathrin Flaßkamp and Sina Ober-Blöbaum and Tobias Schneider and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Optimal Control of a Switched Reluctance Drive by a Direct Method Using a Discrete Variational Principle},
  booktitle = {52^nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control},
  year = {2013}
}
Frank, U., Giese, H., Klein, F., Oberschelp, O., Schmidt, A., Schulz, B., Vöcking, H. and Witting, K. Selbstoptimierende Systeme des Maschinenbaus - Definitionen und Konzepte 2004
Vol. 155 
book  
BibTeX:
@book{Frank2004,
  author = {Frank, U. and Giese, H. and Klein, F. and Oberschelp, O. and Schmidt, A. and Schulz, B. and Vöcking, H. and Witting, K.},
  title = {Selbstoptimierende Systeme des Maschinenbaus - Definitionen und Konzepte},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {155}
}
Frank, U., Giese, H., Müller, T., Oberthür, S., Romaus, C., Tichy, M. and Vöcking, H. Potenziale und Risiken der Selbstoptimierung für die Verlässlichkeit mechatronischer Systeme 2007 Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme 2007
Vol. 2105. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf Mechatronischer Systeme 
inproceedings  
Abstract: Zusammenfassung Fortschrittliche mechatronische Systeme der nächsten
Generation werden sich mit Hilfe komplexer Software intelligent verhalten
und selbstständig ihr Verhalten durch Bildung von Gemeinschaften
autonomer Agenten verbessern können. Der Sonderforschungsbereich
614 „Selbstoptimierende Systeme des Maschinenbaus“ (SFB 614) untersucht
solche mechatronischen Systeme. Mit Hilfe ihrer inhärenten Intelligenz
bestimmen die Teilsysteme dabei autonom neue oder auch veränderte
Ziele und führen nachfolgend entsprechende Verhaltensanpassungen
durch. In diesem Beitrag werden die aus dem Paradigma der Selbstoptimierung
resultierenden Potenziale zur Verbesserung der Verlässlichkeit
des Systems sowie mögliche Gefahren diskutiert. Neben den identifizierten
Potenzialen stellen wir in diesem Beitrag Konzepte und Methoden vor,
die im SFB 614 entwickelt wurden, um Chancen zu nutzen und die Risiken
zu reduzieren. Insbesondere erläutern wir neben der generellen
Berücksichtigung der Verlässlichkeit im Zielsystem eines
selbstoptimierenden Systems Korrektheitsbeweise für die selbstoptimierende
Software, ein Monitoring-Konzept zur Einordnung des Systemzustands
in vier Sicherheitsbereiche, ein flexibles Ressourcenmanagement für
die Notfallbehandlung und verschiedene Ansätze für Potenziale
im Bereich der selbstoptimierenden Wartung, der Verfügbarkeitssteigerung
durch Verhaltensanpassungen und der Selbstheilung.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{FrankGieseEtAl2007,
  author = {Frank, U. and Giese, H. and Müller, T. and Oberthür, S. and Romaus, C. and Tichy, M. and Vöcking, H.},
  title = {Potenziale und Risiken der Selbstoptimierung für die Verlässlichkeit mechatronischer Systeme},
  booktitle = {5. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf Mechatronischer Systeme},
  journal = {Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme 2007},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {210}
}
Fröhleke, N. Pibrac -- Piezoelectric Brake Actuator 2008 4th Annual Congress Innovative Braking  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Froehleke2008,
  author = {Norbert Fröhleke},
  title = {Pibrac -- Piezoelectric Brake Actuator},
  booktitle = {4th Annual Congress Innovative Braking},
  year = {2008}
}
Gausemeier, J., Dumitrescu, R., Tschirner, C. and Stille K., S. Modellbasierte Konzipierung eines hybriden Energiespeichersystems für ein autonomes Schienenfahrzeug 2011 Tag des Systems Engineering  inproceedings  
Abstract: Die Kommunikations- und Informationstechnik eröffnet neue Möglichkeiten
zur Erweiterung und Optimierung der Systemfunktionalität mechatronischer
Systeme. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung dieser fortgeschrittenen mechatronischen
Systeme bedarf sowohl einer besonderen Strukturierung der Informationsverarbeitung
als auch einer geeigneten modellbasierten Entwurfstechnik. SysML
und CONSENS eignen sich für den Entwurf derartiger Systeme. Die Anwendung
von CONSENS wird anhand eines Demonstrators vertieft.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GausemeierDumitrescuEtAl11,
  author = {Gausemeier, J. and Dumitrescu R. and Tschirner C. and Stille K. S.},
  title = {Modellbasierte Konzipierung eines hybriden Energiespeichersystems für ein autonomes Schienenfahrzeug},
  booktitle = {Tag des Systems Engineering},
  year = {2011}
}
Gausemeier, J., Frank, U., Low, C. and Henke, C. From Domain-Spanning Conceptual Design to Domain-Specific Controller 2007 Proceedings of the Systems Engineering for Future Capability, Loughborough, UKThe Systems Engineering for Future Capability  inproceedings  
Abstract: Summary: Self-optimizing systems are technical systems with the ability
to learn, communicate with each other, and optimize their behaviour
autonomously in response to environmental changes. The operation
of such systems requires close interaction between mechanics, electronics,
control engineering and software engineering. This paper addresses
the conceptual design of controllers based on the principle solution
of self-optimizing systems. Controllers required by self-optimizing
systems consist of multiple control algorithms. The control algorithms
are designed to implement the control functionalities formulated
during the conceptual design phase. The development of controllers
based on the principle solution requires engineering skills not covered
by control theory. These skills are extracting the control functionalities
from the principle solution, decomposing the overall control problem
and organizing the individual solutions to constitute a complete
solution. A procedural model that integrates these skills is thus
presented to link the domain-spanning principle solution phase with
the doman-specific controller design phase.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Gausemeier2007,
  author = {J. Gausemeier and U. Frank and C. Low and C. Henke},
  title = {From Domain-Spanning Conceptual Design to Domain-Specific Controller},
  booktitle = {The Systems Engineering for Future Capability},
  journal = {Proceedings of the Systems Engineering for Future Capability, Loughborough, UK},
  year = {2007}
}
Gausemeier, J., Frank, U., Low, C. and Henke, C. Synergistic Impact of Domain Spanning Conceptual Design on Control of Self-Optimizing Systems 2007 The 1st IEEE Systems Conference, Honolulu, USA1st IEEE Systems Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract: Self-optimizing systems are technical systems with the ability
to learn, communicate with each other, and optimize their behavior
autonomously in response to environmental changes. The development
of such systems demands new means of communication and cooperation
between the specialists from diverse disciplines, especially during
the conceptual design phase. The principle solution, as the result
of conceptual design, should be formulated in a domainspanning way
and yet supports domainspecific concretization. In this endeavor,
this paper addresses the domain-spanning specification technique
for describing the principle solution of self-optimizing systems
and explains how the domain-specific controller design process can
be started in an integrative way. The synergistic impacts enabled
by the principle solution are described from the viewpoints of complexity
management, performance enhancement, and potential cost reduction
along the controller design process.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GausemeierFrankEtAl2007,
  author = {J. Gausemeier and U. Frank and C. Low and C. Henke},
  title = {Synergistic Impact of Domain Spanning Conceptual Design on Control of Self-Optimizing Systems},
  booktitle = {1st IEEE Systems Conference},
  journal = {The 1st IEEE Systems Conference, Honolulu, USA},
  year = {2007}
}
Gausemeier, J., Frank, U. and Schulz, B. Domänenübergreifende Spezifikation der Prinziplösung selbstoptimierender Systeme unter Berücksichtigung der auf das System einwirkenden Einflüsse 2005 Mechatronik 2005 -- Innovative Produktentwicklung,Mechatronik 2005 -- Innovative Produktentwicklung  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Gausemeier2005,
  author = {Gausemeier, J. and Frank, U. and Schulz, B.},
  title = {Domänenübergreifende Spezifikation der Prinziplösung selbstoptimierender Systeme unter Berücksichtigung der auf das System einwirkenden Einflüsse},
  booktitle = {Mechatronik 2005 -- Innovative Produktentwicklung},
  journal = {Mechatronik 2005 -- Innovative Produktentwicklung,},
  year = {2005}
}
Gausemeier, J., Iwanek, P., Dorociak, R., Stille, K.S. and Böcker, J. Konzipierung eines selbstoptimierenden hybriden Energiespeichersystems unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verlässlichkeit 2013 Wissenschaftsforum Intelligente Technische Systeme, 9. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme  inproceedings  
Abstract: Die absehbare Entwicklung der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik
wird mechatronische Systeme mit inhärenter Teilintelligenz ermöglichen.
Hierfür verwenden wir den Begriff Selbstoptimierung (S.O.). Selbstoptimierende
(s.o.) Systeme reagieren autonom und flexibel auf sich ändernde Umfeldbedingungen
[ADG+09]. Die Entwicklung derartiger Systeme erfordert eine enge
Zusammenarbeit der Entwickler der beteiligten Domänen Mechanik, Elektrik/Elektronik,
Regelungstechnik und Softwaretechnik. In diesem Beitrag wird erklärt,
wie die Steigerung der Verlässlichkeit durch S.O. bei der Konzipierung
eines s.o. Systems adäquat berücksichtigt wird. Die Konzipierung
des hybriden Energiespeichersystems des innovativen Schienenfahrzeugs
RailCab wird retrospektive durchgeführt. Dies erfolgt von der ersten
Funktionsdefinition über die Lösungsauswahl und die dazugehörige
Nutzwertanalyse bis hin zur Produktkonzeption des Energiespeichersystems.
Es wird gezeigt, wie die Schwachstellen und Widersprüche eines technischen
Systems identifiziert sowie mit Hilfe geeigneter Gegenmaßnahmen behoben
werden können. Hierbei soll insbesondere die Integration der S.O.
als Möglichkeit zur Behebung der Schwachstellen betrachtet werden.
Somit wird gezeigt wann und wie die Entscheidung über die s.o. Auslegung
des Systems getroffen und die Steigerung der Verlässlichkeit dabei
ins Kalkül gezogen wird.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GID+2013,
  author = {Jürgen Gausemeier and Peter Iwanek and Rafal Dorociak and Karl Stephan Stille and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Konzipierung eines selbstoptimierenden hybriden Energiespeichersystems unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Verlässlichkeit},
  booktitle = {Wissenschaftsforum Intelligente Technische Systeme, 9. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme},
  year = {2013}
}
Gausemeier, J., Kahl, S., Low, C.Y. and Schulz, B. From the Principle Solution towards Controller Design of Self-Optimizing Systems 2008
Vol. 2237th International Heinz Nixdorf Symposium -- Self-optimizing Mechatronic Systems: Design the Future, pp. 65 - 84 
inproceedings URL 
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GausemeierKahlEtAl2008,
  author = {J. Gausemeier and S. Kahl and C. Y. Low and B. Schulz},
  title = {From the Principle Solution towards Controller Design of Self-Optimizing Systems},
  booktitle = {7th International Heinz Nixdorf Symposium -- Self-optimizing Mechatronic Systems: Design the Future},
  publisher = {Heinz Nixdorf Institut, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {223},
  pages = {65 - 84},
  url = {https://www.hni.uni-paderborn.de/fileadmin/Externe_Seiten/7_Heinz_Nixdorf_Symposium/Contents_Conference_Transcript_7th_HNI_Symposium.pdf}
}
Gausemeier, J., Kahl, S., Low, C.Y. and Schulz, B. Systematic Development of Controllers based on Priciple Solution of Self-Optimizing Systems 2008 Proceedings of the International Design Conference - DESIGN 2008  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Gausemeier2008a,
  author = {Gausemeier, Jürgen and Kahl, Sascha and Low, Cheng Yee and Schulz, Bernd},
  title = {Systematic Development of Controllers based on Priciple Solution of Self-Optimizing Systems},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Design Conference - DESIGN 2008},
  year = {2008}
}
Giese, H., Montealegre, N., Müller, T., Oberthür, S. and Schulz, B. Acute Stress Response for Self-Optimizing Mechatronic Systems 2006 IFIP Conference on Biologically Inspired Cooperative Computing, August 2006, Santiago de Chile, Chile.IFIP Conference on Biologically Inspired Cooperative Computing  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GieseMontealegreEtAl2006,
  author = {Giese, H. and Montealegre, N. and Müller, T. and Oberthür, S. and Schulz, B.},
  title = {Acute Stress Response for Self-Optimizing Mechatronic Systems},
  booktitle = {IFIP Conference on Biologically Inspired Cooperative Computing},
  journal = {IFIP Conference on Biologically Inspired Cooperative Computing, August 2006, Santiago de Chile, Chile.},
  year = {2006}
}
Grote, T. Digital Control for Interleaved Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Rectifiers 2014 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Grote2014,
  author = {Tobias Grote},
  title = {Digital Control for Interleaved Boost Power Factor Correction (PFC) Rectifiers},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2014}
}
Grote, T., Bolte, S., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Reduction of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for Interleaved Converters Operating in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM) 2012 PCIM 2012  inproceedings  
Abstract: By means of interleaving the total harmonic distortions (THD) can
be reduced significantly. At particular duty ratios the harmonics
are even totally eliminated. Thus, with specific phase shedding depending
on the duty ratio the THD can be further reduced. If converters are
operated in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) the DCM ratio can
be used for a continuous phase shedding method where also fractional
numbers of energized phases can be applied. This method is used to
minimize the THD for the entire duty ratio range also for applications
with unequal inductance values.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GroteBolte2012,
  author = {Grote, T. and Bolte, S. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Reduction of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) for Interleaved Converters Operating in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM)},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2012},
  year = {2012}
}
Grote, T., Figge, H., Fröhleke, N., Beulen, W., Schafmeister, F., Ide, P. and Böcker, J. Semi-Digital Interleaved PFC Control with Optimized Light Load Efficiency 2009 Twenty-Fourth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GroteFiggeEtAl2009,
  author = {Tobias Grote and Heiko Figge and Norbert Fröhleke and W. Beulen and Frank Schafmeister and Peter Ide and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Semi-Digital Interleaved PFC Control with Optimized Light Load Efficiency},
  booktitle = {Twenty-Fourth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)},
  year = {2009}
}
Grote, T., Figge, H., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Schafmeister, F. Digital control strategy for multi-phase interleaved boundary mode and DCM boost PFC converters 2011 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2011 IEEE, pp. 3186-3192  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A digital control strategy which provides optimal interleaving of
multi-phase boost power factor correction (PFC) rectifiers operating
at DCM/CCM boundary (BCM) or in DCM is presented in this paper. In
this method two feedforward algorithms are used. The first provides
the turn-on time to attain the desired input current and the second
computes the switching period time to achieve BCM operation. An extension
to operate in DCM is proposed to avoid CCM under all conditions.
Regulated DCM is used to realize a new continuous phase shedding
method, which is used to limit the switching frequency. The proposed
control structure was implemented on a microcontroller. Experimental
results show the effectiveness of the control strategy on a boost
PFC prototype with 3 parallel rails.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Grote2011,
  author = {Grote, T. and Figge, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. and Schafmeister, F.},
  title = {Digital control strategy for multi-phase interleaved boundary mode and DCM boost PFC converters},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2011 IEEE},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {3186-3192},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2011.6064198}
}
Grote, T., Fröhleke, N., Schafmeister, F. and Ide, P. Semi Digital Interleaved PFC Control 2008 DPEC Seminar  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GroteFroehlekeEtAl2008,
  author = {Tobias Grote and Norbert Fröhleke and Frank Schafmeister and Peter Ide},
  title = {Semi Digital Interleaved PFC Control},
  booktitle = {DPEC Seminar},
  year = {2008}
}
Grote, T., Meyer, M. and Böcker, J. Direct Torque Control für den verlustoptimalen Betrieb eines Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotors mit eingebetteten Magneten 2007 Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2007 -- Hybridantriebstechnik -- Energieeffiziente elektrische AntriebeInternationaler ETG-Kongress -- Hybridantriebstechnik -- Energieeffiziente elektrische Antriebe  inproceedings  
Abstract: Wegen ihrer guten Eigenschaften in Bezug auf Leistungs- und Drehmomentdichte
sowie ihres hohen Wirkungsgrads kommt Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotoren
mit in den Rotor eingelassenen Magneten (interior permanent magnet
synchronous motors, IPMSM) eine immer größere Bedeutung zu. Durch
die Integration der Permanentmagnete in den Rotor ist der magnetisch
wirksame Luftspalt entlang des Rotorumfangs nicht konstant, was zu
einer stark asymmetrischen Induktivitätsverteilung führt.
Dies hat zur Folge, dass zusätzlich zu dem bekannten Hauptdrehmoment
ein Reluktanzdrehmoment auftritt, welches für den verlustoptimalen
Betrieb berücksichtigt werden muss. In diesem Beitrag wird die
dafür notwendige Erweiterung des bekannten Regelungskonzeptes
„Direct Torque Control“ (DTC) vorgestellt, die den verlustoptimalen
Betrieb von IPMSM sowohl im Ankerstellals auch im Flussschwächbereich,
unter Berücksichtigung von Strom- und Spannungsgrenze, gewährleistet.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GroteMeyerEtAl2007,
  author = {Grote, T. and Meyer, M. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Direct Torque Control für den verlustoptimalen Betrieb eines Permanentmagnet-Synchronmotors mit eingebetteten Magneten},
  booktitle = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress -- Hybridantriebstechnik -- Energieeffiziente elektrische Antriebe},
  journal = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2007 -- Hybridantriebstechnik -- Energieeffiziente elektrische Antriebe},
  year = {2007}
}
Grote, T., Schafmeister, F., Figge, H., Fröhleke, N., Ide, P. and Böcker, J. Adaptive Digital Slope Compensation for Peak Current Mode Control 2009 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition  inproceedings  
Abstract: Peak current mode control as well as digital control offers a number
of benefits. Therefore it is an interesting approach to combine these
two techniques in one control structure. Based on microcontrollers
with on-chip comparators, this combination is realizable with very
low effort. In order to eliminate the drawbacks of peak current mode
control, a slope compensation has to be added. This paper presents
such a slope compensation implemented on a microcontroller not using
an analog ramp signal but instead pre-calculating the desired comparator
switch-off threshold. In contrast to conventional analog control,
adaptive algorithms can be used to maintain optimal slope compensation
over a wide operating range. Problems that occur in practice due
to reverse recovery current spike and computing time can be handled
with simple measures. The effectiveness of the proposed digital slope
compensation is verified by experimental results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GroteSchafmeisterEtAl2009,
  author = {Tobias Grote and Frank Schafmeister and Heiko Figge and Norbert Fröhleke and Peter Ide and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Adaptive Digital Slope Compensation for Peak Current Mode Control},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition},
  year = {2009}
}
Grotstollen, H. Design of Long-Stator Linear Motor Drive for RailCab Test Track 2004 ICPE'04, Intern. Conference on Power Electronics, Busan, South KoreaIntern. Conference on Power Electronics (ICPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Grotstollen2004,
  author = {Horst Grotstollen},
  title = {Design of Long-Stator Linear Motor Drive for RailCab Test Track},
  booktitle = {Intern. Conference on Power Electronics (ICPE)},
  journal = {ICPE'04, Intern. Conference on Power Electronics, Busan, South Korea},
  year = {2004}
}
Grotstollen, H. Supply and Control of Piezoelectric Systems 2004 Deutsch-Koreanisches Symposium  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Grotstollen2004a,
  author = {Horst Grotstollen},
  title = {Supply and Control of Piezoelectric Systems},
  booktitle = {Deutsch-Koreanisches Symposium},
  year = {2004}
}
Grotstollen, H. Design of Long-Stator Linear Motor Drives for RailCab Test Track 2005 Journal of Power Electronics (JPE), KIPE, Vol. 5, pp. 166-172  article  
BibTeX:
@article{Grotstollen2005,
  author = {Grotstollen, Horst},
  title = {Design of Long-Stator Linear Motor Drives for RailCab Test Track},
  journal = {Journal of Power Electronics (JPE), KIPE, Vol. 5},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {166-172}
}
Grotstollen, H. Optimale Lastbeschleunigung ohne Probieren 2007 antriebstechnik
Vol. 10, pp. 30 - 35 
article  
Abstract: Die Regelungsqualität eines Servoreglers wird in Marketing und Vertrieb
anhand charakteristischer Kennwerte beurteilt. Wettbewerber aus dem
asiatischen Raum werben häufig mit hohen Bandbreiten des Drehzahlregelkreises.
Europäische Hersteller führen kurze Abtastzeiten für die Regelkreise
als Gütekriterium an und werben mit Abtastfrequenzen von 32 kHz im
Stromregelkreis. Von Kundenseite werden diese Kennwerte als Gütekriterien
aufgegriffen, obwohl sie für den Anwender aus dem Maschinenbau nur
unter idealen Voraussetzungen Aussagekraft haben. Da die

realen Verhältnisse an einer Produktionsmaschine oder Anlage wesentlich
ungünstiger sind, sollen in diesem Beitrag die Zusammenhänge zwischen
den genannten Kennwerten und der tatsächlich erzielbaren Regelungsperformanz
für den Anwender transparent gemacht werden.
BibTeX:
@article{Grotstollen2007,
  author = {Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Optimale Lastbeschleunigung ohne Probieren},
  journal = {antriebstechnik},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {10},
  pages = {30 - 35}
}
Grotstollen, H. Design of Drives with Optimum Load Acceleration 2007 Proc. of Korea-Germany Joint Symmposium on Power Electronics, pp. 110 - 114  inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper the product of torque and acceleration (Mα-product)
is used for design of drives at which load acceleration has to be
optimized. At optimization of such drives this product plays the
same role that mechanical power (product of torque and speed) plays
at the design of constant-speed drives because both products are
transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear. By use of Mα-product
design procedure becomes very clear and consideration of steady-state
load torque is very simple. Last not least, power rate, a motor constant
characterizing its capability to accelerate inertial loads, proves
to be the value of Mα-product which the motor generates during
no-load acceleration.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Grotstollen2007a,
  author = {Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Design of Drives with Optimum Load Acceleration},
  booktitle = {Proc. of Korea-Germany Joint Symmposium on Power Electronics},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {110 - 114}
}
Grotstollen, H. Optimal design of motor and gear for drives with high acceleration and load torque 2009 Electric Machines and Drives Conference, 2009. IEMDC '09. IEEE International, pp. 1173-1179  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Design of drives with high acceleration becomes very simple and clear
when the fact is used that torque-speed product and torque-acceleration
product are transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear. At a first step
those motors can be selected which offer sufficient rated power and
power rate. When designing gears for each of these motors two ranges
of gear ratio result from requirements of constant-speed operation
and accelerating processes. For suitable motors both ranges must
have an overlap from which a value of gear ratio can be chosen fulfilling
all demands. Finally criteria are presented how to vary a motor's
data to improve its suitability for a given application and how to
do the final choice of motor and gear. All results do not depend
on type of motor and can be applied to applications with rotating
or linear motors and/or loads.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Grotstollen2009,
  author = {Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Optimal design of motor and gear for drives with high acceleration and load torque},
  booktitle = {Electric Machines and Drives Conference, 2009. IEMDC '09. IEEE International},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1173-1179},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IEMDC.2009.5075352}
}
Grotstollen, H., Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N. Simulation of Power Electronic Circuits 2005 ICSC 2005 Peking, China.ICSC  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Grotstollen2005a,
  author = {Grotstollen, H. and Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N.},
  title = {Simulation of Power Electronic Circuits},
  booktitle = {ICSC},
  journal = {ICSC 2005 Peking, China.},
  year = {2005}
}
Grotstollen, H., Pottharst, A., Sander, M. and Richard, H. Versuchstrecke und Antriebskonzept für die Neue Bahntechnik Paderborn. 2004 Elektrische Bahnen 7/2004, Germany  article  
BibTeX:
@article{Grotstollen2004b,
  author = {Grotstollen, H. and Pottharst, A. and Sander, M. and Richard, H.},
  title = {Versuchstrecke und Antriebskonzept für die Neue Bahntechnik Paderborn.},
  journal = {Elektrische Bahnen 7/2004, Germany},
  year = {2004}
}
Henke, C. Betriebs- und Regelstrategien für den autonomen Fahrbetrieb von Schienenfahrzeugen mit Linearmotor 2013 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Henke2013,
  author = {Christian Henke},
  title = {Betriebs- und Regelstrategien für den autonomen Fahrbetrieb von Schienenfahrzeugen mit Linearmotor},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2013}
}
Henke, C., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Advanced Convoy Control Strategy for Autonomously Driven Railway Vehicles 2006 IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Transportation SystemsIEEE Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract: For investigation on a new railway technology a test track
in a scale of 1:2.5 was built at the University of Paderborn in 2002.
The vehicles are equipped with a doubly-fed linear motor, enabling
dynamic convoy formation on the track during driving, traction independent
of external influences and transferring power to the vehicle. Thus,
the need for pantographs or a third rail for supplying electrical
power does not arise, whereby the motor concept largely qualifies
for autonomously driven convoys. In this contribution the principle
of driving several vehicles in a convoy is explained. Furthermore
an intelligent strategy for convoy control, which is demanded by
the autonomous operation, is illustrated as well as safety concepts
providing reliability.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Henke2006,
  author = {Henke, C. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Advanced Convoy Control Strategy for Autonomously Driven Railway Vehicles},
  booktitle = {IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC)},
  journal = {IEEE Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems},
  year = {2006}
}
Henke, C., Rustemeier, C., Schneider, T., Böcker, J. and Trächtler, A. RailCab -- Ein Schienenverkehrssystem mit autonomen, Linearmotor getriebenen Einzelfahrzeugen 2007 Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2007 -- Kundennutzen durch neue Technologien in der Bahntechnik, Karlsruhehe, DeutschlandInt. ETG-Kongress-- Kundennutzen durch neue Technologien in der Bahntechnik  inproceedings  
Abstract: Innerhalb des Forschungsprojektes NBP (Neue Bahntechnik Paderborn)
wird ein völlig neuartiges Schienenverkehrssystem entwickelt,
das auf kleinen, autonom verkehrenden Fahrzeugen, den so genannten
RailCabs basiert. Als Antrieb dient ein doppelt gespeister Linearmotor,
der zudem zur berührungslosen Energieübertragung genutzt
wird. Da die Fahrzeuge sich während der Fahrt zu Konvois zusammenschließen
können, sind völlig neue Funktionen der Leittechnik des Systems
zu erfüllen. Abstract Within the research project NBP (Neue Bahntechnik
Paderborn) a new railway technology is developed, based on small,
autonomously driven vehicles, so-called RailCabs. The vehicles are
equipped with a doubly-fed linear motor, enabling transfer of power
to the vehicle and dynamic convoy formation on the track during driving.
Therefore a complex control system was designed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HenkeRustemeierEtAl2007,
  author = {Henke, C. and Rustemeier, C. and Schneider, T. and Böcker, J. and Trächtler, A.},
  title = {RailCab -- Ein Schienenverkehrssystem mit autonomen, Linearmotor getriebenen Einzelfahrzeugen},
  booktitle = {Int. ETG-Kongress-- Kundennutzen durch neue Technologien in der Bahntechnik},
  journal = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2007 -- Kundennutzen durch neue Technologien in der Bahntechnik, Karlsruhehe, Deutschland},
  year = {2007}
}
Henke, C., Tichy, M., Schneider, T., Böcker, J. and Schäfer, W. System Architecture and Risk Management for Autonomous Railway Convoys 2008 2th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HenkeTichyEtAl2008,
  author = {Christian Henke and Mathias Tichy and Tobias Schneider and Joachim Böcker and Wilhelm Schäfer},
  title = {System Architecture and Risk Management for Autonomous Railway Convoys},
  booktitle = {2th Annual IEEE International Systems Conference},
  year = {2008}
}
Henke, C., Tichy, M., Schneider, T., Böcker, J. and Schäfer, W. Organization and Control of Autonomous Railway Convoys 2008 9th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control (AVEC08), pp. 318-323  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HenkeTichySchneiderEtAl2008a,
  author = {C. Henke and M. Tichy and T. Schneider and J. Böcker and W. Schäfer},
  title = {Organization and Control of Autonomous Railway Convoys},
  booktitle = {9th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control (AVEC08)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {318-323}
}
Henke, C., Vöcking, H., Böcker, J., Fröhleke, N. and Trächtler, A. Convoy Operation of Linear Motor Driven Railway Vehicles 2005 The Fifth International Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry ApplicationsSeptember 2005 Kobe - Awaji, Japan.The 5th Int. Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry Applications (LDIA)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Henke2005,
  author = {Henke, C. and Vöcking, H. and Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N. and Trächtler, A.},
  title = {Convoy Operation of Linear Motor Driven Railway Vehicles},
  booktitle = {The 5th Int. Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry Applications (LDIA)},
  journal = {The Fifth International Symposium on Linear Drives for Industry ApplicationsSeptember 2005 Kobe - Awaji, Japan.},
  year = {2005}
}
Henke, M. Antrieb mit doppeltgespeistem Linearmotor für ein spurgeführtes Bahnfahrzeug 2002 School: Institut für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
Abstract: An der Universität Paderborn arbeiten sechs Fachgebiete aus den Bereichen
Maschinentechnik, Elektrotechnik und Wirtschaftsinformatik an der
Entwicklung eines neuartigen Verkehrssystems (Neue Bahntechnik Paderborn,
NBP), das sowohl im Nahverkehr als auch im Regionalverkehr bei Maximalgeschwindigkeiten
von ca. 160 km/h einsetzbar ist [53]. Das Grundkonzept des NBP-Systems
sieht den Betrieb einer Vielzahl kleiner, autonomer Shuttle-Einheiten
vor, die zielrein und auf Abruf geordert werden können [13]. Der
zielreine Betrieb ermöglicht eine direkte Verbindung ohne Umsteigezeiten
und führt zu einer starken Erhöhung der durchschnittlichen Reisegeschwindigkeit.
Bestehende Bahntrassen sollen für gemischten Fracht- und Personenverkehr
genutzt werden, um hohe Auslastung zu erzielen und ein möglichst
gleitendes Hineinwachsen des Systems in bestehende Strukturen zu
ermöglichen. Als Fahrzeugantrieb bietet der Linearmotor die geeigneten
Eigenschaften, um dieses System sinnvoll zu ergänzen. Die Schubkraftbildung
erfolgt über den Direktantrieb und macht mechanisch aufwendige Getriebe
überflüssig. Der Wegfall von Getrieben und rotierenden Maschinen
im Fahrwerk führt zu einer Reduzierung der ungefederten Massen und
damit zu einer Senkung der Beanspruchung des Gleisbettes. Die Kraft-
übertragung erfolgt direkt über das magnetische Luftspaltfeld ohne
den reibungsbehafteten Rad-/ Schienekontakt. Um den Shuttlebetrieb
einfach und robust zu halten, soll die Bordenergie ohne Schleifkontakte
und Oberleitungen auf das Fahrzeug übertragen werden. Hier bildet
der Langstator-Linearmotor eine geeignete Lösung, da ein Großteil
der Antriebsenergie im zwischen den Schienen installierten Primärteil
(Stator) bereitgestellt wird. Der Wegfall von Oberleitungen und die
möglich werdende niedrige Bauweise der Fahrzeuge führt zu einer deutlichen
Reduzierung von Tunnelquerschnitten und den damit verbundenen Baukosten.
Weiterhin stellt der Linearmotor bei Produktion großer Stückzahlen
ein geeignet skalierbares Element hinsichtlich geometrischer und
elektrischer Parameter dar. Werden große Fahrzeugmengen mit dem Sekundärteil
des Linearmotors ausgerü- stet, sind erhebliche Kosteneinsparungen
im Verhältnis zum Einsatz rotierender Motoren zu erwarten. Resultierend
aus immensen Entwicklungen der Informationstechnologie ist es möglich,
ein Hochmaß an Komfort und Sicherheit mittels digital geregelter,
vollaktiver Elemente im Bahnfahrzeug zu erreichen. Beispielsweise
stieg in den letzten 16 Jahren die Leistung digitaler Signalprozessoren
von 6 Millionen auf 8,8 Milliarden Befehlsverarbeitungen je Sekunde
[3]. Für das NBP-System wurde in [54] ein vollaktives 2 1 Einleitung
Fahrwerk mit Linearantrieb vorgeschlagen, das zu Verschleißreduzierung
und zur Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit und Fahrkomfort beiträgt. Das
Fahrwerk wird durch aktive Feder-/ Neigetechnik ergänzt, die das
schnelle und sichere Befahren von engen Kurvenradien ermöglicht.
Eine aktive Achslenkung unterstützt die Radlaufeigenschaften. Alle
Fahrwerkskomponenten sind in ein gemeinsames Informationsverarbeitungssystem
eingebunden. Diese starke Vernetzung ermöglicht den Aufbau von Regelstrukturen
mit sehr guten regelungstechnischen Eigenschaften. Ein solches hochkomplexes
technisches System muss strukturiert entwickelt werden, um die sich
durch die ganzheitliche Betrachtung mechanischer und elektrischer
Systemkomponenten sowie der verwendeten Aktorik und Sensorik bietenden
Möglichkeiten voll ausschöpfen zu können. Hier eignen sich die in
[52] und [55] dargestellten mechatronischen Entwicklungsmethoden
in besonderem Maße. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist zunächst die Definition
der für die Konzeption des Antriebs relevanten Systemanforderungen.
Diese ergeben sich sowohl aus logistischen als auch aus technischen
Randbedingungen. Es folgt dann die Konzeption des Linearantriebes,
der in das vollaktive Fahrwerk integriert wird und als Aktor zur
Realisierung von Schubund Bremsfunktionen dient. Hierzu soll eine
detaillierte Betrachtung der Energie- und Informationskopplungen
in einem Fahrmodul vorgenommen werden, die dann eine sinnvolle Strukturierung
der technischen Subsysteme zulässt. Darauf aufbauend kann dann die
Modellierung des Antriebssystems geschehen. Das Gesamtmodell des
Antriebs dient als Basis für den Entwurf einer Antriebsregelung.
Diese soll anschließend auf den Betrieb ohne mechanischen Lagesensor
erweitert werden. Hier werden verschiedene Konzepte hinsichtlich
ihrer Eignung zur robusten und stabilen Lage- und Geschwindigkeitsschätzung
gegenübergestellt. Das geregelte System lässt dann die Steuerung
der Energieumsetzung in den elektrischen Aggregaten zu. Zunächst
erfolgt eine Analyse der Energieflüsse, und darauf aufbauend werden
im Rahmen eines Energiemanagements optimale Arbeitspunkte für den
wirkungsgradoptimalen Betrieb des Antriebs bestimmt. Aufbau der Arbeit
In Kap. 2 wird das Bahnsystem dargestellt, in das der hier beschriebene
Linearantrieb integriert wird, da die durch das Gesamtsystem vorgegebenen
Randbedingungen für Auswahl und Betriebsweise des Motors eine wesentliche
Rolle spielen. Aus dem NBP-Gesamtsystem wird in Kap. 3 das Fahrmodul
mit Linearmotor herausgegriffen und als mechatronisches System hierarchisch
strukturiert. Die Hierarchisierung wird hierbei bis auf die untersten
Ebenen fortgesetzt, und die vitalen technischen Komponenten im Antriebssystem
werden in mechatronische Module gegliedert. 3 Ein Versuchsstand im
Maßstab 1:2,5 wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit aufgebaut und wird in
Kap. 4 dargestellt. Die experimentelle Erprobung dient zum einen
der Verifikation theoretischer Erkenntnisse und zum anderen der genauen
Identifikation technischer Komponenten und Subsysteme. Aufbauend
auf Untersuchungen zu rotierenden doppeltgespeisten Asynchronmaschinen
wird in Kap. 5 das gesamte physikalische und mathematische Modell
des in seiner Struktur neuartigen doppeltgespeisten Linearmotors
vorgestellt. Hier stellt die Orientierung aller Sekundärteile an
einem einheitlichen Bezugssystem und die daraus resultierenden Kopplungen
einen Schwerpunkt der Untersuchungen dar. Die Regelung des Linearantriebs
eines Fahrzeugs und die im Hinblick auf den Zusammenschluss zu Konvois
wichtigen übergeordneten Regelkreise werden in Kap. 6 diskutiert.
Eine Analyse und Synthese des Modells mit Hilfe von Simulationswerkzeugen
schließt sich an. Hieran angekoppelt sind Verfahren zur Auswertung
von Energieflüssen simulativ untersucht worden. Insbesondere die
Schnittstellen zwischen Statorregelung und Fahrzeugregelkreisen werden
betrachtet. In Kap. 7 werden neuartige Verfahren vorgestellt, um
die für die feldorientierte Regelung des Antriebs notwendige Ermittlung
der Läuferposition rechentechnisch zu realisieren. Dieses soll mit
dem Ziel geschehen, ausschließlich mathematische Verfahren einzusetzen,
um eine hardware-unabhängige, d. h. sensorlose Positionsbestimmung
zu bewirken. Es werden Schätzverfahren mit Testsignalaufschaltung
und erweiterte Kalmanfilterstrukturen gegenübergestellt und bezüglich
ihrer Einsetzbarkeit im störungsreichen Umfeld Bahn verglichen. Die
Untersuchung der Energieflüsse zwischen Stator und Läufer wurde abschlie-
ßend mit dem Ziel vorgenommen, die Bordstromversorgung über den Langstator
zu realisieren. In Kap. 8 wird hierzu ein Konzept zur Optimierung
von Motorverlusten und Rückspeiseleistung erarbeitet. Die Wahl optimaler
Arbeitspunkte für die Statorstromregelung und die Vorgabe optimaler
Sollwerte werden eingehend diskutiert.
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Henke2002,
  author = {Markus Henke},
  title = {Antrieb mit doppeltgespeistem Linearmotor für ein spurgeführtes Bahnfahrzeug},
  school = {Institut für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2002}
}
Hu, M. Modeling Optimization and Control Design for LCC Resonant Converter Applied in Very Low Frequency High Voltage Generator 2014 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Hu2014,
  author = {Manli Hu},
  title = {Modeling Optimization and Control Design for LCC Resonant Converter Applied in Very Low Frequency High Voltage Generator},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2014}
}
Hu, M., Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N. Frequency / duty cycle current-mode fuzzy control for LCC resonant converter 2011 Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011), Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on, pp. 1-8  inproceedings  
Abstract: A novel current-mode nonlinear fuzzy controller with adaptive gain
is developed for the LCC resonant converter applied in very low frequency
high voltage generators using switching frequency and duty cycle
as control variables. The designed fuzzy controller is verified through
simulations. Comparison between the fuzzy controller and a standard
linear controller indicates the correctness and effectiveness of
the novel approach.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hu2011,
  author = {Manli Hu and Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N.},
  title = {Frequency / duty cycle current-mode fuzzy control for LCC resonant converter},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011), Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1-8}
}
Hu, M. and Figge, H. Modeling in Power Electronics 2011 LEA-Doktorandenseminar, Universität Paderborn  misc  
BibTeX:
@misc{HuFigge2011,
  author = {Manli Hu and Heiko Figge},
  title = {Modeling in Power Electronics},
  year = {2011}
}
Hu, M., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Small-signal model and control design of LCC resonant converter with a capacitive load applied in very low frequency high voltage test system 2009 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2009. ECCE 2009. IEEE, pp. 2972-2979  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Very low frequency (VLF) high voltage (HV) sinusoidal waveforms are
suitable for testing characteristics and insulation qualities of
long buried cables. Such a test generator should provide a sinusoidal
voltage from some tens to hundreds of kV. A LCC resonant inverter
with a three-stage symmetrical voltage multiplier rectifier is developed
for this application. In this context, the contribution deals with
the derivation of a smallsignal model of the LCC resonant converter
with a capacitive load as a basis for the subsequent controller design.
For that purpose, the concepts of generalized averaging, extended
describing functions and order reduction are adopted in this paper.
As a particular feature of the designed current controller, both
the converter switching frequency and the duty cycle are utilized
as actuating variables in order to cope with large ranges of output
voltage and load. The small-signal model and the controller design
are verified by measurements on prototypes.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hu2009a,
  author = {Manli Hu and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Small-signal model and control design of LCC resonant converter with a capacitive load applied in very low frequency high voltage test system},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2009. ECCE 2009. IEEE},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2972-2979},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2009.5316299}
}
Hu, M., Froehleke, N., Peters, W. and Boecker, J. Multi-objective optimization of LCC resonant converter applied in VLF HV generator 2011 IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 1456-1461  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The demands for decreasing cost and increasing efficiency are popular
for converter systems. In high voltage converter systems, such demands
become more important and emergent since it is well-known that high
voltage converter systems often consume greater cost and has lower
efficiency compared with usual one. In this paper, a LCC resonant
converter, which is comprised of full-bridge inverter, LCC tank,
HV transformer and Cockcroft-Walton (CW) multiplier, is adopted in
very low frequency (VLF) high voltage (HV) generator. The resonant
current amplitude and voltage drop in CW multiplier are selected
as the objectives for multi-objective optimization. The research
for an optimal design and multi-objective optimization are introduced,
the results of the objectives' trend lines regarding the decision
variables and the Pareto front in given constraint are represented.
Such research and optimization results can be utilized as a guideline
for an optimal design and practical implementation of VLF HV generator.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hu2011a,
  author = {Manli Hu and Froehleke, N. and Peters, W. and Boecker, J.},
  title = {Multi-objective optimization of LCC resonant converter applied in VLF HV generator},
  booktitle = {IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1456-1461},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2011.6119522}
}
Hu, M., Frohleke, N. and Bocker, J. Frequency / duty cycle control of LCC resonant converter supplying high voltage very low frequency test systems 2009 Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on, pp. 1-10  inproceedings  
Abstract: Very low frequency (VLF) high-voltage (HV) sinusoidal test waveforms
are suitable for testing characteristics and insulation qualities
of long buried power cables. Unlike as with conventional PWM converters,
a newly developed LCC resonant inverter combined with a symmetrical
three-stage voltage multiplier rectifier is introduced in this paper
to generate VLF HV sinusoidal waves. Due to the wide ranges of output
voltage and output load, both the switching frequency and the duty
cycle are adopted as control variables. Based on a small-signal equivalent
circuit model and a reduced-order transfer function, an average mode
current controller is developed for the zero voltage switched LCC
resonant converter generating up to 85 kV (RMS) at 0.1 Hz as test
voltage. The theoretical analysis and design are verified by simulations
and experimental measurements with a prototype setup.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hu2009,
  author = {Manli Hu and Frohleke, N. and Bocker, J.},
  title = {Frequency / duty cycle control of LCC resonant converter supplying high voltage very low frequency test systems},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1-10}
}
Huber, T. Experimentelle Identifikation eines thermischen Modells zur Überwachung kritischer Temperaturen in hochausgenutzten permanenterregten Synchronmotoren für automobile Traktionsanwendungen 2016 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Huber2016,
  author = {Tobias Huber},
  title = {Experimentelle Identifikation eines thermischen Modells zur Überwachung kritischer Temperaturen in hochausgenutzten permanenterregten Synchronmotoren für automobile Traktionsanwendungen},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2016}
}
Huber, T., Peters, W. and Bocker, J. Monitoring critical temperatures in permanent magnet synchronous motors using low-order thermal models 2014 Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International, pp. 1508-1515  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring critical temperatures in electric motors is crucial for
preventing shortened motor life spans due to excessive thermal stress.
With regard to interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM),
critical temperatures typically occur in the magnets and in the stator
end winding. As directly measuring temperatures, especially on the
rotating part, is costly, sensitive and thus not applicable with
respect to automotive applications, model-based approaches are preferred.
In this paper, two low-order thermal models for accurate temperature
estimations in the permanent magnets, the winding and the end winding
are introduced and compared. The model parameters are estimated solely
based on experimental data via a multistep identification approach
for linear parameter-varying systems. The model performances are
validated by extensive experimental results based on a high-speed
PMSM typically used as traction motor in subcompact electric cars.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Huber2014,
  author = {Huber, Tobias and Peters, Wilhelm and Bocker, Joachim},
  title = {Monitoring critical temperatures in permanent magnet synchronous motors using low-order thermal models},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {1508-1515},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IPEC.2014.6869785}
}
Huber, T., Peters, W. and Bocker, J. A low-order thermal model for monitoring critical temperatures in permanent magnet synchronous motors 2014 Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2014), 7th IET International Conference on, pp. 1-6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Monitoring critical temperatures in electric motors is crucial for
preventing shortened motor life spans due to excessive thermal stress.
With regard to permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM), critical
temperatures can occur in the magnets and the stator end winding.
While excessive magnet temperatures involve the risk of irreversible
demagnetization when operating the motor in flux weakening mode,
exceeding the thermal limits of the stator windings can destroy the
insulation varnish. As directly measuring temperatures, especially
on the rotating part, is costly and thus not applicable with respect
to automotive applications, model-based approaches are preferred.
In this paper, a low-order thermal model for accurate temperature
predictions in the permanent magnets, the windings and the end windings
is introduced. The model parameters are estimated solely based on
experimental data via a sequence of interdependent identification
steps. The model performance is validated by experimental results
based on a high-speed PMSM typically used as traction motor in subcompact
electric cars.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Huber2014a,
  author = {Huber, T. and Peters, W. and Bocker, J.},
  title = {A low-order thermal model for monitoring critical temperatures in permanent magnet synchronous motors},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2014), 7th IET International Conference on},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {1-6},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2014.0273}
}
Ide, P., Schafmeister, F., Fröhleke, N. and Grotstollen, H. Enhanced Control Scheme for Three-Phase/Three-Level Rectifiers at Partial Load 2004 PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany.35th Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ide2004,
  author = {Ide, P. and Schafmeister, F. and Fröhleke, N. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Enhanced Control Scheme for Three-Phase/Three-Level Rectifiers at Partial Load},
  booktitle = {35th Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)},
  journal = {PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany.},
  year = {2004}
}
Ide, P., Wetzel, H. and Kunze, J. Modular Fuel Cell Inverter System with Integrated High Efficient Auxiliary Supply 2005 PCIM 2005  inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper describes an investigation in order to find optimal structures
for power systems in domestic applications of fuel-cells. Power Systems
of future fuel-cells applications should integrate isolated transmission
of fuel-cell generated energy to the grid at highest efficiency as
well as generation of auxiliary power for operation of the overall
fuel-cell system. Three different approaches, a bi-directional topology,
a complete separation and a double-fed solution are compared, where
the double fed solution tends to be optimal choice in terms of efficiency,
simplicity and reliability.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ide2005,
  author = {Peter Ide and Hermann Wetzel and Jürgen Kunze},
  title = {Modular Fuel Cell Inverter System with Integrated High Efficient Auxiliary Supply},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2005},
  year = {2005}
}
Inderka, R.B. Direkte Drehmomentregelung Geschalteter Reluktanzantriebe 2002 School: RWTH-Aachen  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Inderka2002,
  author = {Inderka, Robert B.},
  title = {Direkte Drehmomentregelung Geschalteter Reluktanzantriebe},
  school = {RWTH-Aachen},
  year = {2002},
  note = {ISBN 3-8322-1175-6, ISSN 1437-675X, Shaker Verlag GmbH, Aachen}
}
Kauczor, C. Entwurf schwach gedämpfter piezoelektrischer Ultraschallsysteme 2008 School: Universtität Paderborn  phdthesis URL 
Abstract: Paderborn, Univ., Diss., 2008
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Kauczor2008,
  author = {Kauczor, Christopher},
  title = {Entwurf schwach gedämpfter piezoelektrischer Ultraschallsysteme},
  school = {Universtität Paderborn},
  year = {2008},
  url = {http://d-nb.info/993770460/34}
}
Kauczor, C. and Fröhleke, N. Inverter Topologies for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Transducers with High Mechanical Q-Factor 2004 PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany.35th Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kauczor2004,
  author = {Kauczor, C. and Fröhleke, N.},
  title = {Inverter Topologies for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Transducers with High Mechanical Q-Factor},
  booktitle = {35th Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)},
  journal = {PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany.},
  year = {2004}
}
Kauczor, C., Schulte, T. and Grotstollen, H. Piezoelectric Transformer of Travelling Wave Type 2004 ACTUATOR 2004, Bremen, Germany9th International Conference on New Actuators (ACTUATOR)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Kauczor2004a,
  author = {Kauczor, C. and Schulte, T. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Piezoelectric Transformer of Travelling Wave Type},
  booktitle = {9th International Conference on New Actuators (ACTUATOR)},
  journal = {ACTUATOR 2004, Bremen, Germany},
  year = {2004}
}
Keuck, L., Almai, F., Bolte, S., Froehleke, N. and Boecker, J. Frequency- and Mode-Adaptive Control of DC-DC Converter for Efficency Improvement 2016 Proc. Renewable Energy and Energy Management PCIM Europe 2016; Int. Exhibition and Conf. for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, pp. 1-8  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Keuck2016,
  author = {L. Keuck and F. Almai and S. Bolte and N. Froehleke and J. Boecker},
  title = {Frequency- and Mode-Adaptive Control of DC-DC Converter for Efficency Improvement},
  booktitle = {Proc. Renewable Energy and Energy Management PCIM Europe 2016; Int. Exhibition and Conf. for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1--8}
}
Keuck, L., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Ziessler, A. PFC-control for improved inductor utilization 2015 Proc. 17th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'15 ECCE-Europe), pp. 1-7  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Keuck2015,
  author = {L. Keuck and N. Fröhleke and J. Böcker and A. Ziessler},
  title = {PFC-control for improved inductor utilization},
  booktitle = {Proc. 17th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'15 ECCE-Europe)},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {1--7},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2015.7309373}
}
Keuck, L., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Formaler Regelungsentwurf für netzfreundliche PFC-Ladegleichrichter unter Anwendung eines Netzbeobachters 2013 Internationaler ETG-Kongress  inproceedings  
Abstract: Nichtlineare Lasten wie z.B. Lichtbogenöfen oder klassische Diodengleichrichter
verzerren den Netzstrom erheblich.

Abhilfe schaffen PFC-Gleichrichter, die mit Hilfe leistungselektronischer
Maßnahmen einen weitgehend sinusförmigen

Netzstrom ermöglichen. Die Regelung dieser PFC-Gleichrichter besteht
meist aus Störgrößenaufschaltung, Stromrege-

lung und überlagerter Spannungsregelung. In diesem Beitrag wird ein
Netzbeobachter entworfen, der die Netzspannung

prädiziert. Hiermit kann die Störgrößenaufschaltung verbessert werden.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Keuck2013,
  author = {Lukas Keuck and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Formaler Regelungsentwurf für netzfreundliche PFC-Ladegleichrichter unter Anwendung eines Netzbeobachters},
  booktitle = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress},
  year = {2013}
}
Keuck, L., Strothmann, B., Raphael Hermelingmeier, Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Single-Stage Battery Charger Based on a LLC Resonant Converter – A Concept Study 2016 8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)  inproceedings  
Abstract: —It has been a common practice to charge batteries
with pure a DC current. Thus, chargers require a large elec-
trolytic capacitor bank to suppress the low frequency components
from entering into the battery. However, according to recent stud-
ies a pure DC charging current is not a mandatory requirement
for high battery-lifetime and efficiency. This allows to omit the
bulky and fast-aging electrolytic capacitors and its input PFC-
rectifier. This paper presents the concept of a single-stage battery
charger based on a LLC resonant converter. Component stresses
are reduced by utilizing a minimized input voltage range. The
LLC resonant tank is designed using an improved time-domain-
analysis which considers major losses. This facilitates a higher
degree of accuracy in determining the range and the modes
of operation, which in turn helps in developing an optimized
design. An experimental lab prototype achieves a peak efficiency
of 97.0 % and a calculated PFC-efficiency of 96.6 %.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Keuck2016,
  author = {Lukas Keuck and Benjamin Strothmann and Raphael Hermelingmeier, and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Single-Stage Battery Charger Based on a LLC Resonant Converter – A Concept Study},
  booktitle = {8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)},
  year = {2016}
}
Klöpper, B., Romaus, C., Schmidt, A. and Vöcking, H. A Multi-Agent Planning Problem for the Coordination of Functions Modules 2008
Vol. 2237th International Heinz Nixdorf Symposium -- Self-optimizing Mechatronic Systems: Design the Future, pp. 377 - 393 
inproceedings URL 
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KloepperRomausEtAl2008,
  author = {Benjamin Klöpper and Christoph Romaus and Alexander Schmidt and Henner Vöcking},
  title = {A Multi-Agent Planning Problem for the Coordination of Functions Modules},
  booktitle = {7th International Heinz Nixdorf Symposium -- Self-optimizing Mechatronic Systems: Design the Future},
  publisher = {Heinz Nixdorf Institut, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {223},
  pages = {377 - 393},
  url = {https://www.hni.uni-paderborn.de/fileadmin/Externe_Seiten/7_Heinz_Nixdorf_Symposium/Contents_Conference_Transcript_7th_HNI_Symposium.pdf}
}
Klöpper, B., Romaus, C., Schmidt, A., Vöcking, H. and Donoth, J. Defining Plan Metrics for Multi-Agent Planning Within Mechatronic Systems 2008 ASME 2008 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering ConferenceInternational Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (ASME)  inproceedings  
Abstract: The paradigm of self-optimization introduces flexible systems of objectives
to the area of mechatronics. From this flexiblity new coordination
problems arise. Such a problem is the coordination of function modules
in such a way that the overall system of objectives is met as good
as possible. Multi-agent Planning offers mechanisms to provide this
coordination. In this paper we introduce the application of an established
method from the area of decision analysis (value tree anaylsis) to
define a common and coherent system of plan metrics for the multi-agent
based coordination of function modules. The application of this approach
is demonstrated on example of function modules within a railway vehicle.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KloepperRomausEtAl2008a,
  author = {Benjamin Klöpper and Christoph Romaus and Alexander Schmidt and Henner Vöcking and Jörg Donoth},
  title = {Defining Plan Metrics for Multi-Agent Planning Within Mechatronic Systems},
  booktitle = {International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference (ASME)},
  journal = {ASME 2008 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference},
  year = {2008}
}
Klöpper, B., Sondermann-Wölke, C. and Romaus, C. Probabilistic Planning for Predictive Condition Monitoring and Adaptation within the Self-Optimizing Energy Management of an Autonomous Railway Vehicle 2012 Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics
Vol. 24(1), pp. 5-15 
article  
Abstract: Self-optimizing mechatronic systems are a new class of technical systems.
On the one hand, new challenges regarding dependability arise from
their additional complexity and adaptivity. On the other hand, their
abilities enable new concepts and methods to improve the dependability
of mechatronic systems. This paper introduces a multi-level dependability
concept for selfoptimizing mechatronic systems and shows how planning
can be used to improve the availability and reliability of systems
in the operating stages.
BibTeX:
@article{KloepperSondermannWoelkeRomaus2012,
  author = {Benjamin Klöpper and Christoph Sondermann-Wölke and Christoph Romaus},
  title = {Probabilistic Planning for Predictive Condition Monitoring and Adaptation within the Self-Optimizing Energy Management of an Autonomous Railway Vehicle},
  journal = {Journal of Robotics and Mechatronics},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {24},
  number = {1},
  pages = {5-15}
}
Klöpper, B., Sondermann-Wölke, C., Romaus, C. and Vöcking, H. Probabilistic Planning Integrated in a Multi-level Dependability Concept for Mechatronic Systems 2009 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Control and Automation (CICA)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Self-optimizing mechatronic systems are a new class of technical systems.
On the one hand, new challenges regarding dependability arise from
their additional complexity and adaptivity. On the other hand, their
abilities enable new concepts and methods to improve the dependability
of mechatronic systems. This paper introduces a multi-level dependability
concept for selfoptimizing mechatronic systems and shows how planning
can be used to improve the availability and reliability of systems
in the operating stages.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KlopperSondermannWolkeRomausEtAl2009,
  author = {Benjamin Klöpper and Christoph Sondermann-Wölke and Christoph Romaus and Henner Vöcking},
  title = {Probabilistic Planning Integrated in a Multi-level Dependability Concept for Mechatronic Systems},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Control and Automation (CICA)},
  year = {2009}
}
Knoke, T. Entwurf und Betrieb hybrid-elektrischer Fahrzeugantriebe am Beispiel von Abfallsammelfahrzeugen 2010 School: Fakultät für Elektrotechnik, Informatik und Mathematik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
Abstract: Gegenwärtig werden hybride Fahrzeugantriebe als ein Schritt in Richtung
umweltfreundlicher Fahrzeuge akzeptiert. Für den Entwurf und Betrieb
solcher Fahrzeuge sind drei Fragen zu beantworten:

1. Wie soll die Struktur aussehen? (Anzahl, Art und Anordnung der
Komponenten im Antriebsstrang)

2. Wie sollen die verwendeten Komponenten bemessen werden? (maximale
Leistung des Verbrennungsmotors, maximale Leistung der elektrischen
Antriebe, Kapazität und Leistung des Energiespeichers)

3. Wie soll die geforderte Antriebsleistung auf die verschiedenen
Komponenten aufgeteilt werden? (Betriebsstrategie)


In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Methoden für die Beantwortung der
einzelnen Fragen aufgezeigt und bewertet. Als Beispiel dient ein
hybrides Abfallsammelfahrzeug, das aufgrund seines besonderen Einsatzprofils
eine deutliche Verbrauchsreduzierung erwarten lässt.

zu 1: Die Festlegung der Struktur erfolgt durch den systematischen
Vergleich verschiedener Strukturalternativen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass
für ein Abfallsammelfahrzeug der parallele Hybridantrieb mit einer
Permanentmagnet-Synchronmaschine und einem Doppelschichtkondensator
als Energiespeicher die günstigste Strukturvariante darstellt.

zu 2: Die Bemessung der Komponenten des Hybridantriebs wird sowohl
heuristisch als auch mit Hilfe mathematischer Optimierungsmethoden
durchgeführt. Bereits mit der einfachen heuristischen Bemessung kann
im Vergleich zu einem konventionellen Sammelfahrzeug eine mittlere
Verbrauchsersparnis von 28% erreicht werden. Durch eine optimale
Bemessung können sowohl die Fahrzeugmasse (-3%) als auch der Verbrauch
(bis zu -3%) weiter reduziert werden.

zu 3: Für den Entwurf einer Betriebsstrategie werden u. a. suboptimale
und heuristische Ansätze verglichen. Durch den Einsatz einer suboptimalen
Strategie auf Basis einer Markov-Kette kann eine zusätzliche Verbrauchsersparnis
von teilweise über 7% erreicht werden.


Die drei o. g. Fragen können für den optimalen Entwurf und Betrieb
eines hybriden Fahrzeugantriebs nicht unabhängig voneinander beantwortet
werden. Durch den vorgestellten simultanen Optimierungsansatz, der
die Abhängigkeiten zwischen Bemessung und Betriebsstrategie berücksichtigt,
sind zusätzliche Verbrauchersparnisse möglich.
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Knoke2010,
  author = {Tobias Knoke},
  title = {Entwurf und Betrieb hybrid-elektrischer Fahrzeugantriebe am Beispiel von Abfallsammelfahrzeugen},
  school = {Fakultät für Elektrotechnik, Informatik und Mathematik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2010}
}
Knoke, T. and Böcker, J. Potenziale eines hybriden Fahrzeugantriebs in einem Abfallsammelfahrzeug 2007 9. Internationales VDI Forum Nutzfahrzeuge9. Internationales VDI Forum Nutzfahrzeuge  inproceedings  
Abstract: Kurzfassung Aufgrund des besonderen Fahrspiels eines Abfallsammelfahrzeugs,
das durch sich häufig abwechselnde Brems- und Beschleunigungsvorgänge
gekennzeichnet ist, ermöglichen hybride Fahrzeugantriebe eine
deutliche Verbrauchsreduzierung. Mit der hier vorgestellten parallelen
Hybridstruktur ist eine Verbrauchsersparnis von 30% und mehr möglich.
Dieser Ersparnis stehen allerdings hohe Mehrkosten, insbesondere
für den elektrischen Energiespeicher, gegenüber. Unter wirtschaftlichen
Aspekten ist eine Speichergröße im Bereich von 5 MJ sinnvoll.
Allerdings ist mit dieser Speichergröße der rein elektrische
Betrieb des Pressmüllaufbaus während des Sammelzyklus nicht
möglich. Abstract Due to the stop-and-go duty cycle of refuse
collector vehicles, hybrid drive trains allow significant fuel saving.
The proposed parallel hybrid structure offers a fuel saving of 30%
and more. High premium costs, in particular for the electrical energy
storage, face this saving. Under economic aspects a storage capacity
in the range of 5 MJ is considerable. However, based on this storage
size, a pure electrical operation of the collector unit during the
collection cycle is not possible.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Knoke2007a,
  author = {T. Knoke and J. Böcker},
  title = {Potenziale eines hybriden Fahrzeugantriebs in einem Abfallsammelfahrzeug},
  booktitle = {9. Internationales VDI Forum Nutzfahrzeuge},
  journal = {9. Internationales VDI Forum Nutzfahrzeuge},
  year = {2007}
}
Knoke, T. and Böcker, J. Optimal Power Train Design of a Hybrid Refuse Collector Vehicle 2007 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Arlington, Texas, USAIEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Due to the stop-and-go drive cycle of refuse collector vehicles,
hybrid power trains allow significant fuel saving. These power trains
are very complex systems because of additional components like an
electrical machine, an energy storage, etc. In order to exploit full
potential of such systems optimal sizing of the components is essential.
The sizing of the components can be seen as an optimization problem
with the objectives “minimize fuel consumption“ and “minimize vehicle
weight“. For the optimization scalable component models are required,
which are presented here. The results of the optimization show that
additional fuel saving combined with reduced weight is possible with
optimally sized components compared to a heuristically designed vehicle.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KnokeBoecker2007,
  author = {T. Knoke and J. Böcker},
  title = {Optimal Power Train Design of a Hybrid Refuse Collector Vehicle},
  booktitle = {IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC)},
  journal = {IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, Arlington, Texas, USA},
  year = {2007}
}
Knoke, T., Romaus, C., Böcker, J., DellAere, A. and Witting, K. Energy Management for an Onboard Storage System Based on Multi-Objective Optimization 2006 Int. Electronics Conference (IECON), S.4677 - 468232nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 4677-4682  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract The power consumption of a tram is characterized by distinct
peaks combined with a low average value. Using an onboard energy
storage, the overhead line peak power and energy consumption can
be reduced. The storage device introduces a degree of freedom for
control of the power flow. To incorporate the freedom an energy management
is required. The design of the energy management can be seen as a
multi-objective optimization problem with the objectives “minimize
line peak power” and “minimize energy consumption”. As common to
most multiobjective optimization problems it is not possible to minimize
both objectives at the same time. The results of the optimization
problem can be described by a Pareto set, from which one Pareto point
has to be selected depending on the weights of the objectives. As
one Pareto set only represents the solution to a fixed set of system
parameters, in case of parameter variations an adaptation process
is necessary. This process can be realized by using an operator-controller-module,
which consists of a cognitive part for planning tasks with lower
real-time requirements and a reflective part for the execution level.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Knoke2006,
  author = {Knoke, T. and Romaus, C. and Böcker, J. and DellAere, A. and Witting, K.},
  title = {Energy Management for an Onboard Storage System Based on Multi-Objective Optimization},
  booktitle = {32nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  journal = {Int. Electronics Conference (IECON), S.4677 - 4682},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {4677--4682}
}
Knoke, T., Romaus, C. and Boecker, J. Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles 2007 23rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS23)23rd Int. Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS23)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KnokeEVS2007,
  author = {Knoke, Tobias and Romaus, Christoph and Boecker, Joachim},
  title = {Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles},
  booktitle = {23rd Int. Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS23)},
  journal = {23rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium (EVS23)},
  year = {2007}
}
Knoke, T., Schneider, T. and Böcker, J. Construction of a Hybrid Electrical Racing Kart as a Student Project 2007 12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark12th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract In the student project presented here a hybrid racing kart
was built on the basis of a conventional kart. Technical key aspects
of the project were the connectional design of the structure, the
sizing of the key components and the implementation of a control
strategy. Beside technical aspects, basics of project management
and teamwork were central topics. After a short introduction the
students accomplished all work on their own responsibility. In particular
they were responsible for the costs and schedule.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Knoke2007,
  author = {T. Knoke and T. Schneider and J. Böcker},
  title = {Construction of a Hybrid Electrical Racing Kart as a Student Project},
  booktitle = {12th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  journal = {12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark},
  year = {2007}
}
Kolomeitsev, L., Kraynov, D., Pakhomin, S., Rednov, F., Kallenbach, E., Kireev, V., Schneider, T. and Bocker, J. Control of a linear switched reluctance motor as a propulsion system for autonomous railway vehicles 2008 13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC), pp. 1598-1603  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A linear switched reluctance drive with large airgap was developed
and manufactured for a test track of autonomous railway vehicles
(RailCab). Control structure and current shaping algorithms are presented
providing smooth transitions between the motoring and dynamic braking
operation modes at low switching losses. In both modes low force
and torque ripples are maintained with reasonable efficiency. The
control is tested on the rotational variant of the motor. Details
of the test bench and measurements of phase currents, force or torque,
respectively, and efficiency are presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KolomeitsevKraynovEtAl2008a,
  author = {Kolomeitsev, L. and Kraynov, D. and Pakhomin, S. and Rednov, F. and Kallenbach, E. and Kireev, V. and Schneider, T. and Bocker, J.},
  title = {Control of a linear switched reluctance motor as a propulsion system for autonomous railway vehicles},
  booktitle = {13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1598--1603},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635495}
}
Kolomeitsev, L., Kraynov, D., Pakhomin, S., Rednov, F., Kallenbach, E., Kireev, V., Schneider, T. and Böcker, J. Linear Switched Reluctance Motor as a High Efficiency Propulsion System for Railway Vehicles 2008 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KolomeitsevKraynovEtAl2008,
  author = {L. Kolomeitsev and D. Kraynov and S. Pakhomin and F. Rednov and E. Kallenbach and V. Kireev and T. Schneider and J. Böcker},
  title = {Linear Switched Reluctance Motor as a High Efficiency Propulsion System for Railway Vehicles},
  booktitle = {International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)},
  year = {2008}
}
Kröger, C., Böcker, J. and Neis, K. Elektromobilität — ein aktuelles Forschungsfeld insbesondere der Regelungstechnik 2010 at – Automatisierungstechnik
Vol. 58(10), pp. 542-545 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{KroegerBoecker2010,
  author = {Claus Kröger and Joachim Böcker and Konstantin Neis},
  title = {Elektromobilität — ein aktuelles Forschungsfeld insbesondere der Regelungstechnik},
  journal = {at – Automatisierungstechnik},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {58},
  number = {10},
  pages = {542-545},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1524/auto.2010.9082}
}
Lönneker, M. and Böcker, J. A Novel Space Vector Modulation Strategy for Thyristor Matrix Converters 2013 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A novel modulation strategy for matrix converters based on space vector
representation is outlined in

this contribution. In particular, the method is applied to a thyristor
matrix converter connecting a

multi-phase generator of varying frequency with the fixed-frequency
three-phase grid. Compared with

the well-known space vector modulation for a three-phase voltage source
inverter, the elementary

output voltage vectors are no longer constant but varying themselves
in time. Additionally, not every

transition between the switching states is possible at any time as
an appropriate external commutation

voltage is needed. Goal of the proposed control approach is get by
with only a small number of

commutations per fundamental in order to keep the switching losses
low while ensuring a reasonable

harmonic distortion.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{LoennekerBoecker2013,
  author = {Michael Lönneker and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {A Novel Space Vector Modulation Strategy for Thyristor Matrix Converters},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)},
  year = {2013}
}
Leuer Entwurf und Evaluation einer modellprädiktiven Regelung für einen permanenterregten Synchronmotor unter Berücksichtigung von Stellgrößenbeschränkungen 2010 School: Fachgebiet Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik Universität Paderborn  mastersthesis  
BibTeX:
@mastersthesis{Leuer2010a,
  author = {Leuer},
  title = {Entwurf und Evaluation einer modellprädiktiven Regelung für einen permanenterregten Synchronmotor unter Berücksichtigung von Stellgrößenbeschränkungen},
  school = {Fachgebiet Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2010}
}
Leuer, M. Modellprädiktive Regelung permanent erregter Synchronmotoren im Antriebsstrang von Automobilen 2014 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
Abstract: Elektro- und Hybridfahrzeuge rücken zunehmend in das Interesse der
Öffentlichkeit und

der Automobilindustrie. Im Antriebsstrang dieser Fahrzeugtypen werden
hauptsächlich

permanent erregte Synchronmotoren mit eingebetteten Magneten (IPMSM)
genutzt, die

sich durch eine hohe Leistungs- und Drehmomentdichte sowie einen guten
Wirkungsgrad

auszeichnen. Zur Ausschöpfung des vollen Leistungspotentials eines
IPMSM ist eine

adäquate Regelung unerlässlich.

Konventionelle Regelungen für IPMSM basieren derzeit in der Regel
auf PIStromreglern,

obwohl Modellprädiktive Regelungen (MPCs) eine deutlich bessere Regelperformance

besitzen: Bei einer MPC ist im Regler ein Prozessmodell des zu regelnden

Systems hinterlegt, mit dem der Regler in jedem Zeitschritt die optimale
zukünftige

Stellgröße ermittelt. Da diese online-Optimierung in Echtzeit ausgeführt
werden muss,

werden insbesondere bei Systemen mit kleinen Zeitkonstanten, wie sie
bei der Regelung

von IPMSM im Antriebsstrang von Automobilen auftreten, enorme Anforderungen
an

die Rechenleistung gestellt. Im Bereich der Erforschung und Entwicklung
moderner Regelungskonzepte

für IPMSM im Antriebsstrang von Automobilen gibt es zwar Ansätze,

MPCs zu verwenden, diese MPCs sind jedoch als offline-Regelungen implementiert,
um

die Echtzeitfähigkeit zu gewährleisten.

In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein MPC-Verfahren entwickelt, welches
speziell auf die

Regelung von IPMSM im Antriebsstrang von Automobilen ausgelegt ist.
Aufgrund der

Arbeitsweise wird dieseMPC in der Arbeit als Vektor-MPC bezeichnet.
Im Gegensatz zur

klassischen MPC berücksichtigt die Vektor-MPC während der online-Optimierung
nur

die durch den Umrichter realisierbaren Stellgrößen, wodurch die Optimierung
sehr ressourcensparend

durchgeführt werden kann. Auch die bestehenden Stellgrößenbeschränkungen

werden durch die Vektor-MPC berücksichtigt. Durch diese Vorgehensweise
sind

auch für Systeme mit Zeitkonstanten im Millisekunden-Bereich - wie
IPMSM im Antriebsstrang

von Automobilen - echtzeitfähige online-MPCs realisierbar. Im Gegensatz

zur klassischen MPC zeichnet sich die Vektor-MPC zudem durch die Möglichkeit
einer

parallelen Berechnung aus und bietet sich damit für eine Implementierung
auf einem

FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) an.

Das Verfahren der Vektor-MPC wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit zunächst
mit Hilfe

von Simulationen für die Regelung des IPMSM optimiert, bevor die Regelung
an einem

Motor-Prüfstand implementiert wird. Die Echtzeitfähigkeit sowie die
gute Regelperformance

der Vektor-MPC und die Verbesserung gegenüber einer PI-Regelung werden
anhand

der Simulations- und Messergebnisse nachgewiesen. Zudem wird gezeigt,
dass die

entwickelte Vektor-MPC auf der verwendeten Rechenhardware mit einer
Reglerzykluszeit

von 1 us realisiert werden kann: Die implementierte Vektor-MPC ist
um den Faktor

10 schneller als erforderlich und kann damit auch auf einer entsprechend
langsameren

Hardware immer noch echtzeitfähig realisiert werden.


-------------------------------


Electric and hybrid vehicles are moving more and more into the focus
of public interest

and the automotive industry. In the traction drives of these vehicles,
mainly permanent

magnet synchronous motors with embedded magnets (IPMSM) are used due
to their

high power and torque density as well as their high degree of efficiency.
In order to

unleash the full performance potential of an electric drive, adequate
control design is

essential.

Conventional controls for IPMSM are generally based on PI controllers,
although

Model Predictive Controls (MPCs) have a significantly better control
performance: A

MPC includes a process model of the system to be controlled. Based
on this model the

controller determines the optimal future manipulated variable in every
sampling step.

Since this online-optimization must be performed in real-time, great
computational costs

for systems with small time constants, as they occur in IPMSM controls
for automotive

applications, result. Therefore, in research and development of advanced
control concepts

for IPMSM in automotive applications, MPCs are so far used in an offline
manner only

to obtain real-time capability.

In the present PhD thesis a MPC approach specially designed for controlling
IPMSM

in electric drive trains is introduced. Due to its operation strategy,
this MPC is referred

to as Vector-MPC. In contrast to a classical MPC, the Vector-MPC only
considers

the realizable manipulated variables of the converter during the online-optimization,

making the optimization task highly computationally efficient. The
existing manipulated

variables are subject to constraints which are directly taken into
account by the Vector-

MPC. The suggested Vector-MPC control approach can be applied to systems
with time

constants in the millisecond range, e.g. IPMSM in electric drive trains,
online and in

real-time. In contrast to a classical MPC, the Vector-MPC is also
characterized by the

possibility of a parallel calculation and is therefore suitable for
implementation on an

FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).

In this work, the method of the Vector-MPC is first optimized with
the help of simulations

before the approach is implemented on an IPMSM test bench. The real-time

capability, the good control performance and the superiority of the
Vector-MPC over a

PI control are demonstrated by the simulation and measurement results.
Furthermore, it

is shown that the developed Vector-MPC can be implemented on the used
computation

hardware with a control cycle time of 1 us: Therewith, the implemented
Vector-MPC is

10 times faster than required and therefore does not lose its real-time
capability even

when being implemented on a slower computation hardware.
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Leuer2014,
  author = {Michael Leuer},
  title = {Modellprädiktive Regelung permanent erregter Synchronmotoren im Antriebsstrang von Automobilen},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2014}
}
Leuer, M. and Böcker, J. Fast online model predictive control of IPMSM using parallel computing on FPGA 2013 Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013 IEEE International, pp. 1017-1022  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Model predictive control (MPC) offers a variety of advantages compared
to conventional control methods. The problem with MPCs is the high
computational cost and the associated long control cycle time. This
makes the use of MPCs unattractive for processes with small time
constants, as in permanent magnet synchronous motors with interior
magnets (IPMSM) for electric vehicles. In this paper a model predictive
control method for nonlinear systems with inherent output limitation
is presented. This approach offers real-time capability for online
MPCs even for processes with time constants in the millisecond range.
This becomes feasible by the possibility of parallel computation,
as provided by a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). In the following,
the functional principle of this real-time MPC approach is presented
and the functionality is verified by simulation results of an IPMSM
control for automotive applications.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leuer2013,
  author = {Leuer, M. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Fast online model predictive control of IPMSM using parallel computing on FPGA},
  booktitle = {Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013 IEEE International},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1017-1022},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IEMDC.2013.6556221}
}
Leuer, M. and Böcker, J. Switching strategy for Direct Model Predictive Control in power converter and drive applications with high switching frequency 2015 Automation, Robotics and Applications (ICARA), 2015 6th International Conference on, pp. 569-573  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Model Predictive Control (MPC) includes a mathematical plant model.
Based on that model, optimal actuating variables for future timesteps
are determined in every sampling step. Thus the MPC exhibits a better
reference response compared to conventional control. The problem
with MPC is the high computational cost and the associated long control
cycle time. Thus MPC is unattractive for processes with small time
constants as they are common in power converter and drive control
systems. In this paper a Direct Model Predictive Control method (DMPC)
for nonlinear systems with inherent output saturation is presented.
In contrast to other Direct-MPC approaches, a more flexible gate-signal
generation method which enables switching during the sampling period
is utilized. In addition the switching frequency can be increased
while maintaining the same controller cycle time. This results in
a reduction of the current ripple. Since this approach is based on
a computational efficient optimization algorithm, it provides real-time
capability for online-MPC even with process time constants in the
millisecond range enabling the use of MPC for control of permanent
magnet synchronous motors with interior magnets (IPMSM).
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leuer2015,
  author = {Leuer, M. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Switching strategy for Direct Model Predictive Control in power converter and drive applications with high switching frequency},
  booktitle = {Automation, Robotics and Applications (ICARA), 2015 6th International Conference on},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {569-573},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ICARA.2015.7081210}
}
Leuer, M. and Böcker, J. Self-Optimizing Model Predictive Direct Torque Control for Electrical Drives 2015 24th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2015)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leuer2015a,
  author = {Leuer, M. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Self-Optimizing Model Predictive Direct Torque Control for Electrical Drives},
  booktitle = {24th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2015)},
  year = {2015}
}
Leuer, M. and Bocker, J. Real-time implementation of an online Model Predictive Control for IPMSM using parallel computing on FPGA 2014 Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International, pp. 346-350  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Model Predictive Control (MPC) offers a variety of advantages compared
to conventional control methods. The problem with MPC is the high
computational cost and the associated long control cycle time. This
makes MPC unattractive for processes with small time constants, as
in permanent magnet synchronous motors with interior magnets (IPMSM)
for electric vehicles. In this paper a Model Predictive Control method
for nonlinear systems with inherent output saturation is presented.
This approach offers real-time capability for online MPC even for
processes with time constants in the millisecond range. This becomes
feasible by the possibility of parallel computation, as provided
by a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). This can overcome the
drawbacks of the high computational effort. After the functional
principle of this real-time MPC approach is presented, the resulting
performance is shown by simulation results and the real-time capability
is verified by test results of an IPMSM for automotive applications
on a testbench.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leuer2014b,
  author = {Leuer, Michael and Bocker, Joachim},
  title = {Real-time implementation of an online Model Predictive Control for IPMSM using parallel computing on FPGA},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {346-350},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IPEC.2014.6869605}
}
Leuer, M., Lönneker, M. and Böcker, J. Model predictive control strategy for multi-phase thyristor matrix converters --- Advantages, problems and solutions 2016 Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe), pp. 1-10  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leuer2016,
  author = {M. Leuer and M. Lönneker and J. Böcker},
  title = {Model predictive control strategy for multi-phase thyristor matrix converters --- Advantages, problems and solutions},
  booktitle = {Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe)},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1--10},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2016.7695350}
}
Leuer, M., Lönneker, M. and Böcker, J. Direct Model Predictive Control Strategy for Multi-Phase Thyristor Matrix Converters 2015 IEEE 3rd International Symposium on Predictive Control of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics (PRECEDE 2015)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leuer2015b,
  author = {M. Leuer and M. Lönneker and J. Böcker},
  title = {Direct Model Predictive Control Strategy for Multi-Phase Thyristor Matrix Converters},
  booktitle = {IEEE 3rd International Symposium on Predictive Control of Electrical Drives and Power Electronics (PRECEDE 2015)},
  year = {2015}
}
Leuer, M., Rüting, A. and Böcker, J. Efficiency-optimized Model Predictive Torque Control for IPMSM 2014 Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), 2014 IEEE International, pp. 9-13  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Model Predictive Control (MPC) offers a variety of advantages compared
to conventional control methods. A MPC includes a process model of
the system to be controlled. Based on this model the controller determines
the optimal actuating variable for future timesteps in every sampling
step. In this paper a Direct Torque Model Predictive Control (DT-MPC)
method for nonlinear systems with inherent output saturation is presented.
This approach offers real-time capability for online MPC even for
processes with time constants in the millisecond range. Furthermore,
it is shown in this paper, how the optimization algorithm in the
MPC can be used in order to achieve optimized efficiency of interior
permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Using the results of
simulation the good control performance as well as the optimization
of the efficiency of an electrical drive train can be shown. Thus,
the DT-MPC provides maximum torque per current (MTPC) operating currents
without the need of additional operating point choice.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Leuer2014a,
  author = {Leuer, M. and Rüting, A and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Efficiency-optimized Model Predictive Torque Control for IPMSM},
  booktitle = {Energy Conference (ENERGYCON), 2014 IEEE International},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {9-13},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ENERGYCON.2014.6850398}
}
Li, R. Power Supplies for High-Power Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motor 2010 School: Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Li2010,
  author = {Li, Rongyuan},
  title = {Power Supplies for High-Power Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motor},
  school = {Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2010}
}
Li, R., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Analysis and Design of a Novel Three-Level LLCC Inverter supplying an Airbone Piezoelectric Brake Actuator 2007 38th Annual IEEE Power Electronic Specialists ConferenceFlorida USA38th Annual IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: novel single-phase three-level PWM inverter in the kW power range,
feeding a high power multi-mass ultrasonic motor (MM-USM) via a LLCC-type
filter. In order to specify the power supply requirements, the operating
principle of the MM-USM employed for a novel airborne brake actuator
is briefed. The control scheme is studied, and for attaining high
dynamic performance, a cascaded voltage and hysteresis current controller
is designed and implemented on a FPGA. Measurement results indicate
the progress towards high power piezoelectric actuator power supply
and tuning measures with respect to modeling and simulations.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2007,
  author = {R. Li and N. Fröhleke and J. Böcker},
  title = {Analysis and Design of a Novel Three-Level LLCC Inverter supplying an Airbone Piezoelectric Brake Actuator},
  booktitle = {38th Annual IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC)},
  journal = {38th Annual IEEE Power Electronic Specialists ConferenceFlorida USA},
  year = {2007}
}
Li, R., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Ide, P. ZVZCS Isolated Converter for Renewable Energy System with Extra Wide Voltage Range 2005 International PCIM Conference, Nürnberg, DeutschlandInt. Power Conversion Intelligent Motion Conference (PCIM)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2005,
  author = {Li, R. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. and Ide, P.},
  title = {ZVZCS Isolated Converter for Renewable Energy System with Extra Wide Voltage Range},
  booktitle = {Int. Power Conversion Intelligent Motion Conference (PCIM)},
  journal = {International PCIM Conference, Nürnberg, Deutschland},
  year = {2005}
}
Li, R., Fröhleke, N., Wetzel, H. and Böcker, J. Investigation of Power Supplies for a Piezoelectric Brake Actuator in Aircrafts 2006 Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC)Shanghai, ChinaInt. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract - In order to facilitate the use of a piezoelectric brake
actuator for direct drive applications in airplanes, a power supply
system in the power range of several kW is developed, characterised
by a high power density, high dynamic and low weight. It feeds the
mechanical vibration and reactive power to a multi-mass ultrasonic
motor. This contribution puts focus on the power supply and control
architecture of the underlying PIBRAC project, whose objective is
to study, design and test a novel type of piezoelectric brake actuator
and its control electronics. The yield should be pronounced cuts
in total weight and peak power demand, when compared to electromagnetic
brake actuators.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2006a,
  author = {Li, R. and Fröhleke, N and Wetzel, H. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Investigation of Power Supplies for a Piezoelectric Brake Actuator in Aircrafts},
  booktitle = {Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC)},
  journal = {Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC)Shanghai, China},
  year = {2006}
}
Li, R., Fröhleke, N., Wetzel, H., Böcker, J., Ouchouche, S., Agostini, E. and Audren, J.-T. Power Supply and Control Scheme for an Airborne Piezoelectric Brake Actuator 2006 Proc. of 10th International Conference on New Actuators (ACTUATOR) Bremen.10th International Conference on New Actuators (ACTUATOR)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract: Environment and fire risks together with high maintenance
costs generate the main drive in recent years to replace hydraulic
actuators in aircrafts by electromechanical actuators. However, conventional
electromagnetic motors with reduction gears increase the weight of
the drive train and require high electrical peak power due to the
kinetic energy of the drive train during anti-skid operation. Thus,
actuators with high torque or force at low speed and very low inertia
are needed. A promising candidate as novel brake actuator is the
multi-mass ultrasonic motor (MM-USM) derived from the well known
travelling-wave type motor (TW-USM), which is the subject of the
European project PIBRAC. This contribution puts focus on the power
supply and control architecture of this underlying project, whose
objective is to study, design and test this novel brake actuator
and its control electronics.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2006,
  author = {Li, R. and Fröhleke, N. and Wetzel, H. and Böcker, J. and Ouchouche, S. and Agostini, E. and Audren, J.-T.},
  title = {Power Supply and Control Scheme for an Airborne Piezoelectric Brake Actuator},
  booktitle = {10th International Conference on New Actuators (ACTUATOR)},
  journal = {Proc. of 10th International Conference on New Actuators (ACTUATOR) Bremen.},
  year = {2006}
}
Li, R., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Design and Implementation of a Power Inverter for a high Power Piezoelectric Brake Actuator 2007 9^th Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (COBEP)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Piezoelectric brake actuators for airplanes are currently under development
to dispense with hydraulic systems. Subject of this contribution
is a novel PWM controlled inverter of the kW power range, feeding
a multi-mass ultrasonic motor (MM-USM) via a LLCC-type filter. It
is designed in a way to reduce the total harmonic distortion of the
motor voltage and to locally compensate for the reactive power of
the motor. By combining latter inverter and filter, the driving voltage
of the motor can be varied in a suitable frequency range, though
the output filter show s an optimal performance at minimized volume
and weight.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2007a,
  author = {Rongyuan Li and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Design and Implementation of a Power Inverter for a high Power Piezoelectric Brake Actuator},
  booktitle = {9^th Brazilian Power Electronics Conference (COBEP)},
  year = {2007}
}
Li, R., Frohleke, N. and Bocker, J. LLCC-PWM inverter for driving high-power piezoelectric actuators 2008 13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC), pp. 159-164  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In this contribution a novel LLCC-PWM inverter is presented for driving
ultrasonic high power piezoelectric actuators. The proposed system
of a pulse-width modulated inverter and LLCC-type filter is designed
in a way to reduce the total harmonic distortion of the motor voltage
and to locally compensate for the reactive power of piezoelectric
actuators. In order to limit the switching frequency, a pulse width
modulation using elimination technique of selected harmonics is designed
and implemented on a FPGA. Due to local compensation of reactive
power and high dynamic behavior of LLCC PWM inverter, the whole power
supply shows an optimal performance at minimized volume and weight
compared to LC and LLCC resonant converters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{LiFrohlekeEtAl2008,
  author = {Rongyuan Li and Frohleke, Norbert and Bocker, Joachim},
  title = {LLCC-PWM inverter for driving high-power piezoelectric actuators},
  booktitle = {13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {159--164},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635261}
}
Li, R., Loenneker, M., Froehleke, N. and Boecker, J. Design of Power Supply for Driving High Power Piezoelectric Actuators 2008 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), pp. 1-6  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{LiLoennekerEtAl2008,
  author = {Li, Rongyuan and Loenneker, Michael and Froehleke, Norbert and Boecker, Joachim},
  title = {Design of Power Supply for Driving High Power Piezoelectric Actuators},
  booktitle = {IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1--6},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/08IAS.2008.305}
}
Li, R., Pottharst, A., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Analysis and Design of Improved Isolated Full-Bridge Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter 2004 PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany35th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2004,
  author = {Li, R. and Pottharst, A. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Analysis and Design of Improved Isolated Full-Bridge Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter},
  booktitle = {35th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)},
  journal = {PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany},
  year = {2004}
}
Li, R., Pottharst, A., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Energy Storage Scheme for Rail-guided Shuttle using Ultracapacitor and Battery 2004 11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control ConferencesEPE-PEMC 2004, September 2004, Riga, Latvia.11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2004a,
  author = {Li, R. and Pottharst, A. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Energy Storage Scheme for Rail-guided Shuttle using Ultracapacitor and Battery},
  booktitle = {11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)},
  journal = {11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control ConferencesEPE-PEMC 2004, September 2004, Riga, Latvia.},
  year = {2004}
}
Li, R., Pottharst, A., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J., Witting, K., Dellnitz, M., Znamenshchykov, O. and Feldmann, R. Design and Implementation of a Hybrid Energy Supply System for Railway Vehicles 2005 APEC 2005, IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference 2005, Austin, USA.IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Li2005a,
  author = {Li, R. and Pottharst, A. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. and Witting, K. and Dellnitz, M. and Znamenshchykov, O. and Feldmann, R.},
  title = {Design and Implementation of a Hybrid Energy Supply System for Railway Vehicles},
  booktitle = {IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC)},
  journal = {APEC 2005, IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference 2005, Austin, USA.},
  year = {2005}
}
Littmann, W., Hemsel, T., Kauczor, C., Wallaschek, J. and Sinha, M. Load-Adaptive Phase-Controller for Resonant Driven Piezoelectric Devices 2003 WCU 2003  inproceedings  
Abstract: In ultrasonic processing tools (e.g. for sonochemistry, ultrasonic
machining, bonding or cleaning), as well as in piezoelectric motors
and transformers, rod- or plate-shaped structures are excited with
piezoelectric elements. Most often, resonant vibrations are required
to achieve maximum energy transformation and efficiency. This work
presents a simple structured load-adaptive phase-controller for resonant
driven piezoelectric devices. The newly developed controller, which
is an extension of the well-known “phase-locked-loop”- concept (PLL)
considers that the fundamental characteristics of the ultrasonic
vibrators depend strongly on their loading conditions, which can
be mechanical (e.g. in ultrasonic processing) or electrical (e.g.
in piezoelectric transformers).
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Littmann2003,
  author = {Littmann, W. and Hemsel, T. and Kauczor, C. and Wallaschek, J. and Sinha, M.},
  title = {Load-Adaptive Phase-Controller for Resonant Driven Piezoelectric Devices},
  booktitle = {WCU 2003},
  year = {2003}
}
Lüdeke, H.-P. Untersuchung von Schaltnetzteilen mit kontinuierlichen Resonanzschwingungen. 1993 School: Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Luedeke1993,
  author = {Lüdeke, Hans-Peter},
  title = {Untersuchung von Schaltnetzteilen mit kontinuierlichen Resonanzschwingungen.},
  school = {Universität Paderborn},
  year = {1993}
}
Lv, J., Cao, Z., Fröhleke, N., Böckercker, J., Yuan, H. and Mi, H. Thermal-Electrical Modeling and Simulation of Resonantly Operated DC-DC Converters Based on Extended Describing Function Method 2011 EPE'11 ECCE Europe Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives  inproceedings  
Abstract: Due to the very large difference between electrical and thermal time
constants, stimulation for

resonantly operated DC-DC converters using physical or ideal switching
model is very

time-consuming or impossible with limited computational resources.
In order to overcome this

problem a novel thermal-electrical averaging model of resonantly operated
DC-DC converters is

proposed in this contribution. The electrical model is based on extended
describing function method.

All required parameters for the thermal model can be obtained from
datasheets. As examples

thermal-electrical models of series-parallel resonant converters with
LC- and C-type output filters are

given and verified by comparison with a standard simulation tool.
The thermal-electrical modeling

procedure proposed in this contribution can of course also be applied
for other types of resonant

converters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{LvCao2011,
  author = {Jianxun Lv and Zhiyu Cao and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böckercker and Haiwen Yuan and Hanguang Mi},
  title = {Thermal-Electrical Modeling and Simulation of Resonantly Operated DC-DC Converters Based on Extended Describing Function Method},
  booktitle = {EPE'11 ECCE Europe Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives},
  year = {2011}
}
Margaritis Analyse eines Sperr-Flußkonverters 1990 School: Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Margaritis1990,
  author = {Margaritis},
  title = {Analyse eines Sperr-Flußkonverters},
  school = {Universität Paderborn},
  year = {1990}
}
Mathapathi, S. FPGA-Based High Performance AC Drive 2011 School: University of Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Mathapati2011,
  author = {Shashidar Mathapathi},
  title = {FPGA-Based High Performance AC Drive},
  school = {University of Paderborn},
  year = {2011}
}
Mathapati, S. and Böcker, J. Implementation of Dynamically Reconfigurable Control Structures on a Single FPGA Platform 2007 12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract More than one control schemes for the motor control with
the dynamic change-over between them is termed as “dynamically reconfigurable
control structures”. Such a dynamically reconfigurable control structure
for induction machine is proposed and implemented on a single FPGA
platform. The inherent feature of FPGA i.e. the parallel execution
offers ease and more enabling to implement such a multiple control
structure. The content of paper emphasises on the basic arrangement
of concept, implementation, sharing the common modules between the
control schemes and the space characterization on FPGA.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Mathapati2007,
  author = {S. Mathapati and J. Böcker},
  title = {Implementation of Dynamically Reconfigurable Control Structures on a Single FPGA Platform},
  booktitle = {12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference (EPE)},
  journal = {12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark},
  year = {2007}
}
Mathapati, S. and Böcker, J. Dynamically Reconfigurable Control Structure for Induction Motor Drives on FPGA Control Platform 2010
Vol. 20-1EPE Journal 
inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MathapatiBocker2010,
  author = {S. Mathapati and J. Böcker},
  title = {Dynamically Reconfigurable Control Structure for Induction Motor Drives on FPGA Control Platform},
  booktitle = {EPE Journal},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {20-1}
}
Mathapati, S. and Böcker, J. Analytical and Offline Approach to Select Optimal Hysteresis Bands of DTC for PMSM 2013 Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on
Vol. 60(3), pp. 885-895 
article DOI  
Abstract: The switching frequency of an inverter under direct torque control
is mainly decided by the flux- and torque-controller output switching
counts. It is known that, with fixed hysteresis bands, the switching
frequency varies as the operating point changes. It is possible,
however, to keep the switching frequency constant by the adaptation
of hysteresis bands. The switching frequency is a function of both
torque and flux bands. Different combinations of flux and torque
bands can be used to achieve a desired switching frequency. However,
for optimal control, one among the many available combinations has
to be chosen. In this contribution, it is proposed to select the
hysteresis bands based on the criterion of the minimum harmonic distortion
in the motor currents for the required switching frequency. An analytical
procedure is presented to calculate these optimal bands for the permanent-magnet
synchronous motor. The analytical results were cross checked with
simulation studies and validated by detailed experimentation. In
order not to degrade the control performance by computational delay,
a field-programmable-gate-array-based control platform is being used
for implementation.
BibTeX:
@article{Mathapati2013,
  author = {Mathapati, S. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Analytical and Offline Approach to Select Optimal Hysteresis Bands of DTC for PMSM},
  journal = {Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {60},
  number = {3},
  pages = {885-895},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2012.2189530}
}
Meyer, M. Wirkungsgradoptimierte Regelung hoch ausgenutzter Permanent-Synchronmaschinen im Antriebsstrang von Automobilen 2010 School: Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
Abstract: Entscheidende Kriterien für elektrische Antriebe in automobilen Traktionsapplikationen
sind Wirkungsgrad und Leistungsdichte. Bedingt durch die fortschreitende
Entwicklung von Seltenerd-Permanentmagnetmaterialien wie NdFeB oder
SmCo mit immer höheren Energiedichten weisen Permanentmagnet-Synchronmaschinen
(PMSM) diesbezüglich hervorragende Eigenschaften auf. Sehr hohe Wirkungsgrade
bzw. Leistungsdichten werden mit so genannten Interior PMSM (IPMSM)
erzielt, bei denen die Permanentmagnete in die Rotorstruktur eingelassen
sind. IPMSM sind daher mittlerweile der dominierende Maschinentyp
in diesem Anwendungsbereich. Im Gegensatz zu Asynchronmaschinen (ASM),
die seit Jahrzehnten in Traktionsantrieben zum Beispiel in Schienenfahrzeugen
im Einsatz sind, sind die Erfahrung mit PMSM in Traktionsanwendungen
aber noch eher gering. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit
der wirkungsgradoptimierten Drehmomentregelung bzw. -steuerung hoch
ausgenutzter IPMSM-Antriebe unter traktionstypischen Randbedingungen.
Hierzu zählen der weit gespreizte Drehzahlbereich, der sowohl einen
Betrieb im Ankerstell- wie auch im Flussschwächbereich erfordert,
und die speziellen Eigenschaften von Maschine und Wechselrichter
wie Eisen-Sättigungseffekte, nichtsinusförmige EMK und kleine minimale
Pulszahl. Die Regelungsstruktur muss zwei Aufgaben erfüllen:


Zunächst ist der Arbeitspunkt zu bestimmen, in dem der Antrieb unter
den gegebenen Randbedingungen möglichst wirkungsgradoptimal betrieben
wird. Zu diesem Zweck wird eine Arbeitspunktsteuerung hergeleitet
und verifiziert, die Arbeitspunkte identifiziert, in denen das geforderte
Drehmoment bei gegebener Drehzahl und Zwischenkreisspannung mit einem
Stromzeiger minimaler Länge (Maximum Torque per Current) gestellt
wird. Übersteigt das geforderte Drehmoment den maximal stellbaren
Drehmomentbetrag, so wird es

auf den maximal erreichbaren Wert begrenzt. Darüber hinaus muss der
wirkungsgradoptimierte Arbeitspunkt in die elektrische Maschine eingeprägt
werden. Dies geschieht durch eine der Arbeitspunktsteuerung unterlagerte
Regelungsstruktur. Mit der "Feldorientierten Stromregelung (FOR)"
und der "Direct Torque Control (DTC)" werden zwei unterlagerte Regelungsstrukturen
betrachtet und miteinander verglichen. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt
hierbei auf der Drehmoment- bzw. Leistungsausbeute sowie auf der
Drehmomentdynamik in dem für die gesamte Regelungsstruktur kritischen
Betrieb im Flussschwächbereich.
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Meyer2010,
  author = {Meyer, Michael},
  title = {Wirkungsgradoptimierte Regelung hoch ausgenutzter Permanent-Synchronmaschinen im Antriebsstrang von Automobilen},
  school = {Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2010}
}
Meyer, M. and Böcker, J. Transient Peak Currents in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Symmetrical Short Circuits 2006 Int. Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)Taormina, Italien.Int. Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract: To enable constant-power areas with permanent magnet synchronous
motors, flux weakening has to be applied. In that mode, the inverter
protection measure, e.g. in case of overcurrent, is a crucial point,
since the open-circuit induced terminal voltage may exceed the allowed
inverter limit. That is why a symmetrical short circuit (SSC) is
currently favoured as alternative protection measure. Though the
steady state short circuit current may be acceptable, this contribution
shows that the transient current may seriously exceed the allowed
limit. The worst case SSC will not occur during flux weakening but
in regenerative operation at rated speed. Such high peak currents
include the risk of permanent demagnetization of the magnets. As
a result, SSC should applied only during flux weakening as protection
measure, while for the lower speed range the convential converter
shut down is proposed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Meyer2006,
  author = {Meyer, M. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Transient Peak Currents in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for Symmetrical Short Circuits},
  booktitle = {Int. Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)},
  journal = {Int. Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)Taormina, Italien.},
  year = {2006}
}
Meyer, M. and Böcker, J. Optimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant Torque and Flux Weakening Range 2006 12th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)Portoroz, Slowenien.12th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) gain
importance due to their high torque per volume ratio particularly
for hybrid electrical vehicles. However, unlike to standard control
theory, the torque control strategy for these motors is not apparently
due to their reluctance torque, which is typical with interior magnet
design. In this contribution, a control strategy is presented, which
enables optimal torque control both in the lower speed range as well
in the full flux weakening range. Operation during flux weakening,
however, causes stress to the magnets of the motor with the risk
of permanent demagnetization. The relations between the crucial design
parameters are shown.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Meyer2006a,
  author = {Meyer, M. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Optimum Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) in Constant Torque and Flux Weakening Range},
  booktitle = {12th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  journal = {12th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)Portoroz, Slowenien.},
  year = {2006}
}
Meyer, M., Grote, T. and Böcker, J. Direct Torque Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Respect to Optimal Efficiency 2007 12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract Due to their high torque and power per volume ratio, interior
permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are widespread electrical
machines for traction drive applications, e.g. in the drive train
of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). IPMSM exhibit a significant degree
of saliency along the rotor circumference. Thus, in order to exploit
the full potential of an IPMSM drive, it is mandatory to utilize
the reluctance torque. As a result, using a rotor flux oriented torque
control, the clear separation between flux and torque generating
currents is no longer possible, i.e. that the determination of the
reference currents for the subordinated current control is rather
difficult. Furthermore, drive applications demand for a wide constant
power range with flux weakening ratios of up to 1:5 or even higher.
However, flux weakening operation demands for additional measures
to ensure that the current controllers dispose of a minimum amount
of voltage reserve, which is necessary to govern transients and to
compensate for disturbances. In this contribution a Direct Torque
Control (DTC) structure is proposed to cope with the afore mentioned
problems. In a DTC structure, torque and flux are controlled directly.
Hence, the approach is very well suited for operation at saturated
voltage. Furthermore, with torque and flux as control variables,
it is not necessary to determine any reference currents. However,
the proposed structure utilizes two Look Up Tables (LUT) for the
determination of efficiency-optimal set values for flux and torque.
The LUT are generated based on measurement results. So, they do already
account for saturation effects. The proposed DTC structure has been
implemented and verified on a test bed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MeyerGroteEtAl2007,
  author = {M. Meyer and T. Grote and J. Böcker},
  title = {Direct Torque Control for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors with Respect to Optimal Efficiency},
  booktitle = {12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference (EPE)},
  journal = {12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark},
  year = {2007}
}
Njiende, H., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Optimized Size Design of Integrated Magnetic Components Using Area Product Approach 2005 EPE 2005, Dresden, Deutschland11th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Njiende2005,
  author = {Njiende, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Optimized Size Design of Integrated Magnetic Components Using Area Product Approach},
  booktitle = {11th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  journal = {EPE 2005, Dresden, Deutschland},
  year = {2005}
}
Njiende, H., Fröhleke, N. and Cronje, W. Modeling and analysis of integrated magnetic components 2003
Vol. 1Power Electronics Specialist Conference, 2003. PESC '03. 2003 IEEE 34th Annual, pp. 283-288 vol.1 
inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A complete modeling approach of integrated magnetic components comprising
a transformer and filter inductors is presented in this contribution,
which is verified on a four winding component. Impacts of the center
leg and outer leg air gaps on inductances, coupling factor and output
current ripple are discussed. Analytical and FEM modeling results
based on geometrical, material and winding data are compared to experimental
results. The complete modeling of the integrated magnetic component,
also required for input and output filter design, leads to a simplified
integration into simulation tools enabling pre-optimization before
breadboarding.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Njiende,
  author = {Njiende, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Cronje, W.A.},
  title = {Modeling and analysis of integrated magnetic components},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Specialist Conference, 2003. PESC '03. 2003 IEEE 34th Annual},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {283-288 vol.1},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/PESC.2003.1218307}
}
Njiende, H., Fröhleke, N. and Cronje, W. Modeling and analysis of integrated magnetic components 2003 EMF 2003, The 6th International Symposium on Electric and Magnetic Fields  inproceedings  
Abstract: A complete modeling approach of integrated magnetic components comprising
a transformer and filter inductors is presented in this contribution,
which is verified on a four winding component. Impacts of the center
leg and outer leg air gaps on inductances, coupling factor and output
current ripple are discussed. Analytical and FEM modeling results
based on geometrical, material and winding data are compared to experimental
results. The complete modeling of the integrated magnetic component,
also required for input and output filter design, leads to a simplified
integration into simulation tools enabling pre-optimization before
breadboarding.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Njiende2003,
  author = {Njiende, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Cronje, W.A.},
  title = {Modeling and analysis of integrated magnetic components},
  booktitle = {EMF 2003, The 6th International Symposium on Electric and Magnetic Fields},
  year = {2003}
}
Njiende, H.D., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Derivation of Integrated Magnetic Components using Reluctance and Mathematical Modeling 2004 PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany35th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Njiende2004,
  author = {Njiende, H. D. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Derivation of Integrated Magnetic Components using Reluctance and Mathematical Modeling},
  booktitle = {35th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference and Exhibition (PESC)},
  journal = {PESC 2004, Aachen, Germany},
  year = {2004}
}
Notker, A., Böcker, J. and Prenner, F. Active Damping of Drive Train Oscillations for an Electrically Driven Vehicle 2004 IEEE / ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Vol. 9 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Notker2004,
  author = {Notker, A. and Böcker, J. and Prenner, F.},
  title = {Active Damping of Drive Train Oscillations for an Electrically Driven Vehicle},
  journal = {IEEE / ASME Transactions on Mechatronics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {9}
}
Paiz, C., Hagemeyer, J., Pohl, C., Porrmann, M., Rückert, U., Schulz, B., Peters, W. and Böcker J. FPGA-based realization of self-optimizing drive-controllers 2009 Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09. 35th Annual Conference of IEEEIndustrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09. 35th Annual Conference of IEEE, pp. 2848 -2853  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: An FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) implementation and suitable
power electronics can lead to a fast torque response in motion drive
applications. However, when the controller parameters or its structure
have to be adapted to internal and external varying conditions, e.g.,
when a self-optimizing control system is pursued, a static implementation
might not lead to the best utilization of reconfigurable resources.
This contribution outlines the implementation of a self-optimizing
system composed of several possible hardware and software realizations
of controllers for a permanent magnet servo motor. How well a specific
controller realization is suited to the current situation is evaluated
based on control quality and realization effort (i.e., CPU time,
reconfigurable area). A System-on-Chip architecture is presented,
which enables an on-line exchange of FPGA- and CPU-based realizations
of controllers to optimize resource utilization and control quality.
It is shown that by using dynamic hardware reconfiguration, such
self-optimizing controller can be implemented based on FPGA technology.
Furthermore, the design-flow including self-developed tools is outlined.
Experimental results show that the proposed scheme works satisfactory.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PaizHagemeyerPohlEtAl2009,
  author = {Paiz, C. and Hagemeyer, J. and Pohl, C. and Porrmann, M. and Rückert, U. and Schulz, B. and Peters, W. and Böcker, J.,},
  title = {FPGA-based realization of self-optimizing drive-controllers},
  booktitle = {Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09. 35th Annual Conference of IEEE},
  journal = {Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON '09. 35th Annual Conference of IEEE},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2848 -2853},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2009.5415402}
}
Paradkar, M. and Böcker, J. Analysis of eddy current losses in the stator windings of IPM machines in electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications 2016 8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)  inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper the eddy current losses in the windings of an IPM machine applied to electric and hybrid electric HEV applications are analysed using finite element analysis. Conductors in a slot, which form turns of a coil, are grouped in various combinations and analysed for losses. The end-winding is unaffected by skin and proximity effects and therefore modelled as a DC resistance. It was found that the end-winding resistance significantly damps the skin and proximity effects. The temperature effect on the losses has also been considered by modifying the copper conductivity. It is established that at higher winding temperatures the contribution of AC loss to the total copper loss is reduced significantly. Analysis has also been carried out for various positions of the conductors in the return slot, considering transposition in the end winding region. It is shown that through strand transposition in the end-winding region the AC losses in the stator windings can be significantly reduced.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Paradkar2016,
  author = {Milind Paradkar and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Analysis of eddy current losses in the stator windings of IPM machines in electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications},
  booktitle = {8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)},
  year = {2016}
}
Paradkar, M. and Böcker, J. Design of a high performance ferrite magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor for an electric vehicle 2012 IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 4099-4103  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A high performance 55kW (peak) ferrite-based permanent magnet-assisted
synchronous reluctance motor has been designed for an electric vehicle
application. The design steps are outlined. Ferrite magnets have
been chosen over conventional NdFeB due to cost issues. It is shown
by finite element analysis that even under peak load conditions the
ferrite magnets are safe from irreversible demagnetization. Key performance
indicators for the motor are listed for the entire speed range. It
is shown that a design of a high power density machine is possible
even in the absence of NdFeB magnet.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Paradkar2012,
  author = {Paradkar, M. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Design of a high performance ferrite magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance motor for an electric vehicle},
  booktitle = {IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {4099-4103},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2012.6389234}
}
Paradkar, M. and Bocker, J. 2D analytical model for estimation of eddy current loss in the magnets of IPM machines considering the reaction field of the induced eddy currents 2015 Proc. IEEE Int. Electric Machines Drives Conf. (IEMDC), pp. 1096-1102  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Paradkar2015,
  author = {M. Paradkar and J. Bocker},
  title = {2D analytical model for estimation of eddy current loss in the magnets of IPM machines considering the reaction field of the induced eddy currents},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Int. Electric Machines Drives Conf. (IEMDC)},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {1096--1102},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IEMDC.2015.7409198}
}
Peter, K. and Böcker, J. Operating electrical high speed drives with pulse patterns of specific harmonic content 2015 Proc. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), pp. 2972-2979  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Peter2015,
  author = {K. Peter and J. Böcker},
  title = {Operating electrical high speed drives with pulse patterns of specific harmonic content},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {2972--2979},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2015.7310076}
}
Peter, K. and Böcker, J. Minimierung niederfrequenter Oberschwingungen in Pulsmustern für 2-Level Umrichter in Antriebssystemen mittels winkelmodulierter Partikel Schwarm Optimierung 2013 Internationaler ETG-Kongress  inproceedings  
Abstract: Werden hochtourige Drehstromantriebe mit einer feldorientierten Regelung
betrieben, ist es aufgrund der relativ niedri-

gen Pulszahl erforderlich, diese in Verbindung mit einer synchronisierten
Pulsweitenmodulation (SPWM) einzusetzen.

Die auf die Grundschwingung bezogenen niederfrequenten Oberschwingungen,
die in den resultierenden Spannungen

und Strömen enthalten sind, tragen zu einer nicht unwesentlichen Erhöhung
der Gesamtverluste im Antriebssystem bei.

Um diese zu reduzieren, bietet es sich an, harmonisch optimierte Pulsmuster
einzusetzen. Dazu wird in diesem Beitrag

zunächst ein neues Offline-Verfahren zur harmonischen Optimierung
von binären Pulsmustern vorgestellt und im An-

schluss daran aufgezeigt, wie die Regelungsstruktur erweitert werden
muss, damit ein Antriebssystem, bestehend aus

einem 2-Level Wechselrichter und einer permanenterregten Synchronmaschine,
mit den berechneten Pulsmustern be-

trieben werden kann.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Peter2013,
  author = {Klaus Peter and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Minimierung niederfrequenter Oberschwingungen in Pulsmustern für 2-Level Umrichter in Antriebssystemen mittels winkelmodulierter Partikel Schwarm Optimierung},
  booktitle = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress},
  year = {2013}
}
Peter, K., Böcker, J., Mink, F. and Beineke, S. Comparison of Quarter-Wave with Half-Wave Symmetrical Pulse Patterns Applied in Electrical High-Speed Drives 2016 8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Typical fundamental frequencies of an electrical high-speed
drive range between 1 and 2 kHz. Common switching
frequencies from 8 to 16 kHz lead to small pulse numbers and
in consequence complicate the closed loop operation of the
drive. In addition, the efficiency of these drives which are
typically used in pumps, fans, compressors and turbine
systems should be further optimized to ensure economic
operation. In order to achieve this requirement both the
switching frequency of the applied pulse pattern and the total
harmonic distortion (THD) of the resulting phase currents
should be kept as low as possible while retaining stable
operation. In this paper, optimized pulse patterns of quarter-
wave and half-wave symmetry are applied in an electrical
high-speed drive and compared to sine-triangular pulse width
modulation with regard to THD. The principle of the
developed control and modulation strategy will be proven by
simulation and experimental results. It will be shown that the
application of optimized pulse patterns is recommended
especially for high modulation degrees resulting in a THD
reduction of 20 to 45 percent.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Peter2016,
  author = {Klaus Peter and Joachim Böcker and Fabian Mink and Stefan Beineke},
  title = {Comparison of Quarter-Wave with Half-Wave Symmetrical Pulse Patterns Applied in Electrical High-Speed Drives},
  booktitle = {8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)},
  year = {2016}
}
Peter, K., Hanke, S., Mink, F. and Böcker, J. Inverter loss management for an electrical high-speed drive system 2016 Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe), pp. 1-10  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Peter2016a,
  author = {K. Peter and S. Hanke and F. Mink and J. Böcker},
  title = {Inverter loss management for an electrical high-speed drive system},
  booktitle = {Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe)},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1--10},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2016.7695587}
}
Peters, A., Romaus, C., c. Henke and Böcker, J. Linearantriebstechnik mit inhärenter kontaktloser Energieübertragung 2011 6. Fachveranstaltung Kontaktlose Energiübertragung - Stand der Technik  inproceedings  
Abstract: Das Potential zur Energieübertragung vom Stator zum Läufer eines doppelt
gespeisten Asynchron-Linearmotors, der als Antrieb eines autonomen
Schienenfahrzeuges dient, ist für unterschiedliche Betriebsarten
erforscht worden. Die Regelung der Kraft und Energieübertragung bei
Relativbewegungen mehrerer Fahrzeuge auf einem Statorabschnitt (Konvoi),
sowie die Synchronisation der Felder von Fahrzeugen und Strecke wird
behandelt. Ein intelligentes Energiemanagement, basierend auf Methoden
der Mehrzieloptimierung, in Verbindung mit einem hybriden Energiespeicher
wird vorgestellt.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PetersRomausHenkeEtAl2011,
  author = {A. Peters and C. Romaus and c. Henke and J. Böcker},
  title = {Linearantriebstechnik mit inhärenter kontaktloser Energieübertragung},
  booktitle = {6. Fachveranstaltung Kontaktlose Energiübertragung - Stand der Technik},
  year = {2011}
}
Peters, W. Wirkungsgradoptimale Regelung von permanenterregten Synchronmotoren in automobilen Traktionsanwendungen unter Berücksichtigung der magnetischen Sättigung 2015 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Peters2015,
  author = {Wilhelm Peters},
  title = {Wirkungsgradoptimale Regelung von permanenterregten Synchronmotoren in automobilen Traktionsanwendungen unter Berücksichtigung der magnetischen Sättigung},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2015}
}
Peters, W. and Böcker, J. Discrete-Time Design of Adaptive Current Controller for Interior Permanent Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) with High Magnetic Saturation 2013 IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WPeters2013,
  author = {Peters, W. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Discrete-Time Design of Adaptive Current Controller for Interior Permanent Synchronous Motors (IPMSM) with High Magnetic Saturation},
  booktitle = {IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2013}
}
Peters, W., Huber, T. and Böcker, J. Control Realization for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) in Automotive Drive Trains 2011 PCIM 2011  inproceedings  
Abstract: The specific requirements for electrical automotive traction drives
are a wide speed range, a wide constant-power operation range and
high efficiency. In this paper a suitable control scheme is presented
that ensures good dynamics, stability and high efficiency in the
whole operation range. The focus is on the regular-sampled current
control design, which requires a precise discrete-time model including
the effect of a small number of sampling instants per electrical
rotation. A suitable model as well as an adequate controller design
is presented. The control is realized and evaluated by experimental
results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PetersHuber2011,
  author = {Wilhelm Peters and Tobias Huber and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Control Realization for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) in Automotive Drive Trains},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2011},
  year = {2011}
}
Peters, W., Schulz, B., Mathapati, S. and Böcker, J. Regular-sampled current measurement in AC drives using delta-sigma modulators 2009 Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on, pp. 1-9  inproceedings  
Abstract: A delta-sigma modulator converts an analog input signal into a high-frequency
stream of single bits with out-off band noise. A high-resolution
signal is extracted from the bit-stream with an appropriate low pass
filter. The paper emphasizes on the utilization of SincK-filters
as low pass filter and proposes a sampling method that is synchronized
with the controller to incorporate a regular sampling. The paper
also covers the detailed analysis of SincK-filters (known as decimation
filter) with different decimation ratios and filter orders, and a
detailed analysis of the impulse response for the synchronization
of the filter with the controller. The SincK-filter is integrated
into a field-oriented control for permanent magnet synchronous motors.
The whole system is realized on a FPGA-based control platform. The
performance is validated by experimental results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PetersSchulz2009,
  author = {Peters, W. and Schulz, B. and Mathapati, S. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Regular-sampled current measurement in AC drives using delta-sigma modulators},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1-9}
}
Peters, W., Wallscheid, O. and Böcker, J. Current controller with defined dynamic behavior for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor 2011 IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 534-538  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Typically traction and electronic stability programs (ESP) as well
as drive train oscillation damping applications in electrical vehicles
are realized in a cascaded control structure with the current control
as innermost loop. The current control dynamic, however, is usually
varying due to nonlinear effects as controller output saturation
and changing motor parameters. In this paper a current control scheme
is presented that ensures a well defined dynamic behavior despite
these nonlinear effects. As a consequence, the design of superimposed
control loops is simplified due to the well known linear dynamics,
which in turn can be beneficial with respect to the performance of
the entire control loop.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WPeters2011,
  author = {Peters, W. and Wallscheid, O. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Current controller with defined dynamic behavior for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor},
  booktitle = {IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {534-538},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2011.6119367}
}
Peters, W., Wallscheid, O. and Böcker, J. A precise open-loop torque control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) considering iron losses 2012 IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 2877-2882  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are preferentially
chosen as traction drives for electric vehicles due to their high
power and torque density. In a field-oriented control scheme an operation
point selection strategy is required to choose appropriate current
set points to generate the requested torque with high precision and
optimal efficiency. Although the currents are controlled in terms
of a closed-loop control, the operation point selection is an open-loop
torque control. Thus a precise motor model considering the impact
of saturation effects and iron losses is required to estimate appropriate
current set points. This paper proposes a lookup-table (LUT) based
operation point selection. The lookup-tables are generated offline
using the Maximum Efficiency (ME) strategy considering saturation
effects and iron losses.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WPeters2012,
  author = {Peters, W. and Wallscheid, O. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {A precise open-loop torque control for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) considering iron losses},
  booktitle = {IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {2877-2882},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2012.6389438}
}
Pohlenz, D. and Böcker, J. Efficiency improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency operating strategy 2010 Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), 2010 14th International, pp. T5-15-T5-19  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) are preferably
used for traction drives in electric vehicles. These are characterized
by high efficiency and high torque as well as power density. The
generation of reference currents for the field-oriented control is
realized by look up tables (LUT). In these LUT the entire machine
characteristic is described. The reference currents are selected
on the basis of different operating strategies. The Maximum Torque
Per Current (MTPC) method, which minimizes the magnitude of the current
at a given torque, is the most common strategy in the constant torque
range. It can be proven by measurements on a real motor that the
MTPC method deviates considerably from the best efficiency under
certain boundary conditions. The use of the Maximum Efficiency (ME)
method increases the drive efficiency in comparison to the MTPC up
to 0.3% at the same torque level. The ME characteristic however,
has to be changed with the machine speed. Using the ME method, the
gain of efficiency is small but it can be achieved with minor adaptions
of a LUT in the machine control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Pohlenz2010,
  author = {Pohlenz, D. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Efficiency improvement of an IPMSM using Maximum Efficiency operating strategy},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), 2010 14th International},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {T5-15-T5-19},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2010.5606831}
}
Pottharst, A., Baptist, K., Schütze, O., Böcker, J., Fröhleke, N. and Dellnitz, M. Operating Point Assignment of a Linear Motor Driven Vehicle Using Multiobjective Optimization Methods 2004 11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences, EPE-PEMC 2004, Riga, Latvia.11th Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Pottharst2004a,
  author = {Pottharst, A. and Baptist, K. and Schütze, O. and Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N. and Dellnitz, M.},
  title = {Operating Point Assignment of a Linear Motor Driven Vehicle Using Multiobjective Optimization Methods},
  booktitle = {11th Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)},
  journal = {11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences, EPE-PEMC 2004, Riga, Latvia.},
  year = {2004}
}
Pottharst, A. and Grotstollen, H. Radio Based Control of a Linear Motor for the NBP Railway System 2003 ISICT 2003, 5th International Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology  inproceedings  
Abstract: In the course of the NBP (Neue Bahntechnik Paderborn) project a testing
plant is used for investigations on autonomous railway vehicles (shuttles)
driven by linear motors. At the testing plant the linear motors are
of the doubly-fed long-stator type which is used to transfer energy
to the shuttles. In accordance with the two parts of the linear motor
being distributed to the vehicles and the track the drive control
hardware consists of different units which are distributed to stationary
plants and moving

shuttles. Communication between these control units cannot be performed
but by radio transmission which is a demanding task because strong
realtime requirements of drive control must be fulfilled.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Pottharst2003,
  author = {Pottharst, A. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Radio Based Control of a Linear Motor for the NBP Railway System},
  booktitle = {ISICT 2003, 5th International Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology},
  year = {2003}
}
Pottharst, A. and Grotstollen, H. Distributed Control Structure of the NBP Test Track with Linear Motor Driven Vehicles 2005 International Embedded Systems Symposium, August 15-17, 2005, Manaus, Brasil.Int. Embedded Systems Symposium, pp. 235-243  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Pottharst2005,
  author = {Pottharst, A. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Distributed Control Structure of the NBP Test Track with Linear Motor Driven Vehicles},
  booktitle = {Int. Embedded Systems Symposium},
  journal = {International Embedded Systems Symposium, August 15-17, 2005, Manaus, Brasil.},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {235--243}
}
Pottharst, A., Henke, C., Schneider, T., Böcker, J. and Grotstollen, H. Drive Control and Position Measurement of RailCab Vehicles Driven by Linear Motors 2006 Int. Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology (ISICT), Beijing, China.The 6th Int. Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology (ISICT)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Pottharst2006,
  author = {Pottharst, A. and Henke, C. and Schneider, T. and Böcker, J. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Drive Control and Position Measurement of RailCab Vehicles Driven by Linear Motors},
  booktitle = {The 6th Int. Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology (ISICT)},
  journal = {Int. Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology (ISICT), Beijing, China.},
  year = {2006}
}
Pottharst, A., Schulz, B. and Böcker, J. Kommunikationssystem einer Anlage mit doppelt gespeistem Linearmotor 2004 SPS/IPC/DRIVES 2004, Nürnberg, DeutschlandSPS/IPC/DRIVES  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Pottharst2004,
  author = {Pottharst, A. and Schulz, B. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Kommunikationssystem einer Anlage mit doppelt gespeistem Linearmotor},
  booktitle = {SPS/IPC/DRIVES},
  journal = {SPS/IPC/DRIVES 2004, Nürnberg, Deutschland},
  year = {2004}
}
Preckwinkel, H., Bünte, A., Böcker, J., Fröhleke, N. and Dora, K. A Novel Low Cost Solar Central Inverters Topology With 99.2 % Efficiency 2013 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: For solar central inverters, high efficiency is still a very important
issue. It increases the yield, but

even more important, it reduces the thermal stress of all components,
minimizes the cooling effort or

allows higher ambient temperatures. The main challenge is not only
to reach high peak efficiency in

one operation point but more to provide a good performance over the
whole voltage and power range.

In this contribution, a new topology for central inverters connected
to the medium-voltage grid is

presented, analyzed and practically examined. Measurements on a 100
kW prototype prove this

concept by an excellent high and flat efficiency graph peaking at
99.2 %. This result is obtained with

conventional silicon semiconductors.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PreckwinkelEtAl2013,
  author = {Heiko Preckwinkel and Andreas Bünte and Joachim Böcker and Norbert Fröhleke and Krishna Dora},
  title = {A Novel Low Cost Solar Central Inverters Topology With 99.2 % Efficiency},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)},
  year = {2013}
}
Preckwinkel, H., Krishna, D., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Entwicklung eines hocheffizienten Photovoltaikwechselrichters für den Leistungsbereich von 100 bis 500 kW 2011 Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2011, Würzburg, Germany  inproceedings  
Abstract: In den letzten Jahren wurde viel Entwicklungsarbeit für photovoltaische
Einspeisewechselrichter geleistet. Immer noch sind die Senkung der
Systemkosten und die Verbesserung des Wirkungsgrades die wichtigsten
Ziele. Dieser Beitrag analysiert und vergleicht verschiedene Wechselrichtertopologien,
welche für hocheffiziente photovoltaische Zentralwechselrichter im
Leistungsbereich 100-500 kW in Frage kommen. Es wird gezeigt, dass
auch mit heutigem Stand der Technik europäische Wirkungsgrade bis
98,9 % ohne neue Halbleitertechnologien zu erreichen sind. Die Arbeit
umfasst Recherche, Simulation von Halbleiterverlusten sowie Modellierung
der Eisen- und Kupferverluste der eingesetzten Filterinduktivitäten.
Diese sorgfältige Verlustmodellierung der einzelnen Komponenten ermöglicht,
die Verluste des Gesamtsystems in Abhängigkeit der Betriebsparameter
wie Schaltfrequenz, Zwischenkreisspannung und Ausgangsstrom genau
zu bestimmen. Die anschließende Bewertung der Topologien erfolgt
dabei nicht nur anhand der erreichbaren Wirkungsgrade, sondern auch
im Hinblick auf Realisierbarkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit. Nach Auswahl
der besten Topologien werden Prototypen aufgebaut, um die simulierten
Ergebnisse zu verifizieren.


During the last years a lot of research has been dedicated to PV-inverters.
Up to now, the main goals are to increase efficiency and to minimize
the costs of the system. This paper analyzes different topologies
for PV-inverters in a power range of 100-500 kW. A practical approach
will be presented to achieve European efficiency of 98.9 % without
using new semiconductor technologies. The work includes search of
topologies, simulation of semiconductor losses, as well as modeling
of filter inductor iron and copper losses. Thorough modeling leads
to accurate results of efficiencies depending of switching frequency,
DC-voltage and output current. The final ranking of the considered
topologies is not only done with regard to efficiency but also to
technical feasibility and economy. Prototypes of the most promising
topologies are built up to verify the simulation results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Preckwinkel2011a,
  author = {Preckwinkel, Heiko and DVMM Krishna and Fröhleke, Norbert and Böcker, Joachim},
  title = {Entwicklung eines hocheffizienten Photovoltaikwechselrichters für den Leistungsbereich von 100 bis 500 kW},
  booktitle = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress 2011, Würzburg, Germany},
  year = {2011}
}
Preckwinkel, H., Krishna, D., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Photovoltaic inverter with high efficiency over a wide operation area - a practical approach 2011 IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 912 -917  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Preckwinkel2013,
  author = {Preckwinkel, H. and Krishna, D.V.M.M. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Photovoltaic inverter with high efficiency over a wide operation area - a practical approach},
  booktitle = {IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {912 -917},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2011.6119432}
}
Radkowski, R. and Henke, C. Einsatz von Virtual Reality zur Untersuchung realer und simulierter mechatronischer Systeme am Beispiel der neuen Bahntechnik Paderborn 2007 10. IFF-Wissenschaftstage, 27.-28. Juni 2007, Magdeburg10.IFF-Wissenschaftstage  inproceedings  
Abstract: 1. Einleitung An der Universität Paderborn wird in der Arbeitsgruppe
Neue Bahntechnik Paderborn (NBP) ein neuartiges Schienenverkehrssystem
mit Namen RailCab entwickelt. Kern des Konzeptes sind kleine Fahrzeuge,
die so genannten RailCabs. Die RailCabs fahren autonom im Streckennetz,
sie werden bei Bedarf angefordert und steuern ihr Ziel ohne Zwischenstopp
an. Der Antrieb erfolgt mittels eines Wandermagnetfeldes berührungslos
über einen linearen Direktantrieb. Der Linearantrieb kann in
das bestehende Schienensystem integriert werden, somit bleibt die
bestehende Infrastruktur weiterhin nutzbar. Die einzelnen Fahrzeuge
schließen sich während der Fahrt zu ungekoppelten Konvois zusammen.
Dadurch wird der Streckendurchsatz erhöht und der Energiebedarf
verringert; die Fahrzeuge nutzen den Windschatten des vorherfahrenden
Fahrzeuges. Die Energieeinsparung wird umso größer, je länger
der Konvoi ist. [Trä06], [Lüc00] Um das Bahnkonzept unter
realitätsnahen Bedingungen zu untersuchen, wurde an der Universität
Paderborn eine Teststrecke im Maßstab 1:2,5 gebaut (Bild 1), deren
Länge beträgt ca. 530 Meter. Bild
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RadkowskiHenke2007,
  author = {R. Radkowski and C. Henke},
  title = {Einsatz von Virtual Reality zur Untersuchung realer und simulierter mechatronischer Systeme am Beispiel der neuen Bahntechnik Paderborn},
  booktitle = {10.IFF-Wissenschaftstage},
  journal = {10. IFF-Wissenschaftstage, 27.-28. Juni 2007, Magdeburg},
  year = {2007}
}
Romaus, C. Selbstoptimierende Betriebsstrategien für ein hybrides Energiespeichersystem aus Batterien und Doppelschichtkondensatoren 2013 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
Abstract: Elektro- und Hybridfahrzeuge stellen hohe Anforderungen an die Spitzenleistung,
Reichweite und Effizienz der Energiespeichertechnik. Ein hybrides
Energiespeichersystem, welches die hohe Energiedichte von Batterien
mit der hohen Leistungsdichte und Zyklenfestigkeit von Doppelschichtkondensatoren
kombiniert, erfüllt diese Anforderungen ausgezeichnet.


Durch die Hybridisierung ergeben sich Freiheitsgrade und somit Optimierungspotenziale
hinsichtlich der Systemstruktur, der Bemessung der Komponenten und
insbesondere des Entwurfs von Betriebsstrategien für die Leistungsaufteilung
auf die beiden Energiespeicher. Anhand der Anwendungsbeispiele des
autonomen Schienenverkehrssystems RailCab und eines Elektrostraßenfahrzeugs
werden Methoden zur Nutzung dieser Freiheitsgrade vorgestellt und
bewertet.


Die Struktur des hybriden Energiespeichersystems wird über einen Vergleich
verschiedener Alternativen festgelegt. Eine parallele Anbindung beider
Speicher an das Bordnetz über einen eigenen Leistungssteller stellt
die vorteilhafteste Variante für die Anwendungen dar.


Die Bemessung der Komponenten erfolgt für das RailCab heuristisch,
für das Elektrofahrzeug über eine Parameterstudie diskreter Speicherauslegungen
und die Berechnung optimaler Strategien anhand typischer Fahrspiele.
In beiden Fällen kann das Gewicht des Energiespeichers durch Hybridisierung
um mindestens 30% reduziert und gleichzeitig die Leistungsdichte
signifikant um 70-230% gesteigert werden.

Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit liegt auf der Entwicklung intelligenter
Betriebsstrategien auf Basis mathematischer Optimierungsverfahren.
Dabei werden zwei gegenläufige Ziel-funktionen berücksichtigt. Es
werden optimale und stochastische Ansätze untersucht.


Mit dem im Sonderforschungsbereich 614 entwickelten Konzept der Selbstoptimierung
werden selbstoptimierende Betriebsstrategien entworfen, die sich
dadurch auszeichnen, dass sie ihr Zielsystem selbsttätig zur Laufzeit
an variable Umfeld- und Systembedingungen anpassen. Durch die flexible
Auswahl der in der jeweiligen Situation relevanten Zielaus-prägung
wird eine Ergebnisqualität erreicht, die deutlich über die Qualität
klassischer Strategien mit statischem Zielsystem hinausgeht. Dies
wird anhand von Anwendungsbeispielen gezeigt, bei denen zum einen
durch Aufbau einer Reserve für Spitzenleistung unvorhergesehene bzw.
kritische Fahrsituationen sicher bewältigt werden, während auf unkritischen
Fahrprofilen eine hohe Effizienz und eine Verlustreduktion von bis
zu 40 % gegenüber einem reinen Batteriesystem erzielt werden.


-----------------------


Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles place high demands for peak
power, energy content and efficiency on energy storage technology.
A hybrid energy storage system combining the high specific energy
of batteries and the high specific power and cycle stability of double
layer capacitors excellently meets these demands.


With two independent energy storage components, degrees of freedom
and thus potential for optimization arise with regard to the system
structure, the sizing of the components and particularly the design
of energy management strategies for the distribution of power to
both storages. The development of appropriate methods is demonstrated
and rated by the examples of the autonomously operated railway system
RailCab and an electric car.


The structure of the hybrid energy storage system is determined by
technical comparison of several alternatives. For the considered
applications, a parallel connection of both storages by separate
power converters is particularly advantageous.


Dimensioning of the components is carried out heuristically for the
RailCab and by a parametric study of discrete storage sizes for the
electric car, using optimal strategies and typical driving cycles.
In both cases, by hybridization the weight of the storage can be
reduced by at least 30 % and simultaneously the specific power can
be increased significantly by 70-230 %.


The main focus of this thesis is on the development of intelligent
energy management strategies based on mathematical optimization methods.
Two competing objective functions are considered. Optimal and stochastic
approaches are investigated.


Applying the concept of self-optimization developed in Collaborative
Research Center 614, self-optimization energy management strategies
are composed which are characterized by the ability to adapt their
system of objectives to continuously varying surroundings and system
conditions during runtime. By flexible rating of the objectives relevant
to the respective situation, the quality of results is distinctly
enhanced compared to classic strategies with static system of objectives.
This is demonstrated using the application examples: By establishing
a power reserve, unexpected or critical driving situations can be
safely handled, while on uncritical driving profiles a high efficiency
and a loss reduction up to 40 % compared to a pure battery can be
achieved.
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Romaus2013,
  author = {Christoph Romaus},
  title = {Selbstoptimierende Betriebsstrategien für ein hybrides Energiespeichersystem aus Batterien und Doppelschichtkondensatoren},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2013}
}
Romaus, C., Böcker, J., Witting, K., Seifried, A. and Znamenshchykov, O. Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Combining Batteries and Double Layer Capacitors 2009 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), pp. 1640-1647  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Many mobile vehicular applications like hybrid- electrical cars and
autonomous rail vehicles require an on- board energy storage for
operation. High demands concerning power and energy density, small
volume and weight at the same time cannot be satisfied solely by
batteries or double layer capacitors. A suitable approach is to combine
storage technologies with complementary characteristics as a hybrid
energy storage system. Thus, long term storage like batteries featuring
high energy density can be combined with short term storage like
double layer capacitors offering high power density and high cycliability.
To control the power flows of the system, we propose the use of self-optimization
methods involving multi-objective and discrete optimization to design
an operating strategy which is able to adapt the system behavior
to different conditions not only by adapting its parameters but also
its objectives, offering an optimal operation in different situations.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Romaus2009,
  author = {Christoph Romaus and Joachim Böcker and Katrin Witting and Albert Seifried and Oleksiy Znamenshchykov},
  title = {Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Combining Batteries and Double Layer Capacitors},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1640-1647},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2009.5316428}
}
Romaus, C., Gathmann, K. and Böcker, J. Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on Stochastic Dynamic Programming 2010 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC 2010)  inproceedings URL 
Abstract: For electric and hybrid electric cars, commonly nickel-metal hydride
and lithium-ion batteries are used as energy storage. The size of
the battery depends not only on the driving range, but also on the
power demands for accelerating and braking and life-time considerations.
This becomes even more apparent with short driving ranges, e.g. in
commuter traffic. By hybridization of the storage, adding double
layer capacitors, the battery can be relieved from the stress of
peak power and even downsized to the energy demands instead of power
demands. The dimensioning of the storage is performed by a parametric
study via Deterministic Dynamic Programming. To determine an energy
management to control the power flows to the storage online during
operation which considers the stochastic influences of traffic and
the driver, Stochastic Dynamic Programming is investigated and compared
to the optimal strategy found during the dimensioning.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Romaus2010,
  author = {Christoph Romaus and Kai Gathmann and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on Stochastic Dynamic Programming},
  booktitle = {Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC 2010)},
  year = {2010},
  url = {file://lealiteratur\pdfLEA010010_VPPC_Vortrag_OptimalEnergyManagementForHES.pptx}
}
Romaus, C., Wimmelbücker, D., Stille, K.S. and Böcker, J. Self-Optimization Energy Management Considering Stochastic Influences for a Hybrid Energy Storage of an Electric Road Vehicle 2013 IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles place high demands for peak
power, energy content and efficiency on the energy storage. By hybridization
of the storage, adding double layer capacitors, the battery can be
relieved from the stress of peak power and even downsized to meet
only energy demands instead of power demands. Thus, the storage weight
and losses can be significantly reduced. An energy management to
distribute the power to both storages can be mathematically optimized
applying Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP), considering stochastic
influences of the driving process. To handle different conditions
and driving cycles, we propose self-optimization control strategies
involving multi-objective optimization. These strategies are able
to autonomously adapt their behavior and relevance of objectives,
offering an optimal and secure operation in different situations.
Index Terms—Dynamic programming, electric vehicle, energy management,
hybrid energy storage system, self-optimization
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RomausWimmelbueckerStilleEtAl2013,
  author = {Christoph Romaus and Dominik Wimmelbücker and Karl Stephan Stille and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Self-Optimization Energy Management Considering Stochastic Influences for a Hybrid Energy Storage of an Electric Road Vehicle},
  booktitle = {IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC)},
  year = {2013}
}
Schafmeister, F., Wang, X., Grote, T. and Ide, P. Scalable multi phase interleaved boundary mode PFC concept enabling energy- and cost efficient PSUs in the kW-range 2010 Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 3831-3835  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A new concept of an interleaved multi phase power factor correction
(PFC) rectifier which is operating at the boundary of discontinuous
to continuous conduction mode (DCM/CCM boundary) is presented in
this paper. DCM or DCM/CCM boundary mode operation of boost PFC topologies
inherently avoids reverse recovery losses within the switching diodes
which do occur at conventional CCM operation. This offers the possibility
to employ cheaper Si- instead of high-performance SiC diodes (as
required for efficient CCM operation) and, at the same time is even
more energy efficient. Based on digital control this paper introduces
a new extended concept of interleaving four or more boost phases
in boundary mode operation yielding a modular PFC approach which
is N times scalable with respect to the desired output power. Experimental
results of a 1500W prototype PFC converter verify the proposed concept.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schafmeister2010,
  author = {Schafmeister, F. and Xudong Wang and Grote, T. and Ide, P.},
  title = {Scalable multi phase interleaved boundary mode PFC concept enabling energy- and cost efficient PSUs in the kW-range},
  booktitle = {Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {3831-3835},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE.2010.5637495}
}
Schneider, T. Traktionsantrieb mit linearem geschalteten Reluktanzmotor für ein autonomes Bahnfahrzeug 2014 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Schneider2014,
  author = {Tobias Schneider},
  title = {Traktionsantrieb mit linearem geschalteten Reluktanzmotor für ein autonomes Bahnfahrzeug},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2014}
}
Schneider, T., Schulte, C., Mathapati, S. and B"øcker, J. Energy Transfer with Doubly-Excited Switched Reluctance Drive 2010 Proc. International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schneider2010,
  author = {Tobias Schneider and Christoph Schulte and Shashidhar Mathapati and Joachim B"øcker},
  title = {Energy Transfer with Doubly-Excited Switched Reluctance Drive},
  booktitle = {Proc. International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Schneider, T., Schulz, B., Henke, C. and Böcker, J. Redundante Positionserfassung für ein spurgeführtes linearmotorgetriebenes Bahnfahrzeug 2006 Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut, Universität PaderbornWorkshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut, Universität Paderborn  inproceedings  
Abstract: Zusammenfassung Auf einer Versuchsanlage der Universität Paderborn
wird der autonome Betrieb von spurgeführten Fahrzeugen (Railcabs)
erforscht. Einen wesentlichen Aspekt stellt dabei die Regelung von
doppelt gespeisten Asynchron-Linearantrieben dar. Eine Herausforderung
ergibt sich aus den räumlich verteilten Motorkomponenten. Die
Schubkrafterzeugung setzt eine phasenrichtige Abstimmung der Wanderwellen
der Läufer- und Statorsegmente voraus. Im Hinblick auf einen
sicheren und zuverlässigen Betrieb des Linearantriebs wird in
diesem Beitrag neben den redundanten Sensorsystemen auch ein Algorithmus
zur Verbesserung der Antriebsregelung vorgestellt. Ausgehend vom
Modell des doppelt gespeisten Linearantriebs werden in Abschnitt
2 die Phasenbeziehungen zwischen stator- und läuferseitiger Wanderwelle
dargestellt. In Abschnitt 3 wird die Positionserfassung und zeitliche
Synchronisation mittels in den Rädern angebrachten Inkrementalgebern,
sowie deren Kalibrierung mittels redundanter Sensorik erläutert.
Um die durch Spurkranzanläufe verursachten Messfehler zu kompensieren,
wurde eine weitere Methode zur Erfassung der für die Antriebsregelung
erforderlichen relativen Phasenlage entwickelt. Die dabei verwendeten
Hallsensoren mit Nachlaufsynchronisation (PLL) werden in Abschnitt
4 beschrieben. Durch die dargestellten Messungen werden die Grenzen
dieses Verfahrens aufgezeigt. Ein Algorithmus zur Erhöhung der
Zuverlässigkeit durch Redundanz ist in Abschnitt 5 skizziert.
Dabei werden Plausibilitäts- und Qualitätsbewertungen in
ein Zustandsüberwachungskonzept integriert.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schneider2006,
  author = {Schneider, T. and Schulz, B. and Henke, C. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Redundante Positionserfassung für ein spurgeführtes linearmotorgetriebenes Bahnfahrzeug},
  booktitle = {Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut, Universität Paderborn},
  journal = {Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz-Nixdorf-Institut, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2006}
}
Schneider, T., Schulz, B., Henke, C., Witting, K., Steenken, D. and Böcker, J. Energy Transfer via Linear Doubly-Fed Motor in Different Operating Modes 2009 International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC)  inproceedings URL 
Abstract: The potential to transfer energy from the primary to the secondary
of an asynchronous linear doubly-fed motor is investigated for different
operating modes taking care of detailed losses modeling in both primary
and secondary parts of the motor. The degrees of freedom for the
operating point assignment and the energy transfer are discussed
and a multiobjective optimization process is described and utilized
to achieve an efficient energy transfer. For investigation of particular
questions of thrust generation and energy transfer, a test bed of
8 m length is utilized for validation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SchneiderSchulzEtAl2009,
  author = {Tobias Schneider and Bernd Schulz and Christian Henke and Katrin Witting and Dominik Steenken and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Energy Transfer via Linear Doubly-Fed Motor in Different Operating Modes},
  booktitle = {International Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC)},
  year = {2009},
  url = {http://www.iemdc2009.org/}
}
Schulte, C. and Böcker, J. Co-simulation of an electric traction drive 2013 Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013 IEEE International, pp. 974-978  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: For the simulation of electrical drives, reduced-order models or simple
look-up tables are often used in order to decrease the computation
time. In the latter case, the quality of the results is reduced due
to interpolation. This publication introduces a coupled simulation
structure which includes the control, the power electronics and also
a permanent magnet synchronous machine. Each of these components
is simulated in different software environments. The coupling between
the different software tools is realized by a defined data flow structure.
Such a structure can be useful for accurate design and system optimization.
Comparison between the simulation results and experimental measurements
shows that a good agreement is obtained.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schulte2013a,
  author = {Schulte, C. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Co-simulation of an electric traction drive},
  booktitle = {Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013 IEEE International},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {974-978},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IEMDC.2013.6556215}
}
Schulte, C., Peter, K., Leuer, M. and Böcker, J. Comparison of Optimized Pulse Patterns with Direct Model Predictive Control Using Co-Simulation 2016 8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Accurate simulation of electric drives has always been desirable, as it allows the machine designer a deeper insight into the whole design. This publication presents a comparison of two different control approaches. To maximize the results' accuracy, no reduced-order models of the control structure or of the motor model are being used. The comparison includes a PI-controller with optimized pulse patterns and a Direct Model Predictive Control. As a benchmark the current response and the magnet loss are compared.\br>The comparison of both control strategies shows that the Model Predictive Control offers high dynamics buts leading to higher magnet loss compared with the optimized pulse patterns. The simulated magnet loss values of the optimized pulse patterns correlates well with the results of the analytical approach.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schulte2016,
  author = {Christoph Schulte and Klaus Peter and Michael Leuer and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Comparison of Optimized Pulse Patterns with Direct Model Predictive Control Using Co-Simulation},
  booktitle = {8th IET international conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD2016)},
  year = {2016}
}
Schulte, T. Stromrichter- und Regelungskonzepte für Ultraschall-Wanderwellenmotoren 2004 School: Fakultät für Elektrotechnik, Informatik und Mathematik der Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
Abstract: Im Gegensatz zu klassischen Elektromotoren nutzen Piezomotoren den
inversen piezoelektrischen Effekt. Ein typischer Vertreter ist der
Ultraschall-Wanderwellenmotor [6, 8]. Der Wanderwellenmotor wurde
ursprünglich für einfache Stellaufgaben z. B. im PKW propagiert.
Dort finden sich heute auch erste Anwendungen wie Lenkrad-Höhenverstellung
und Kopfstützenverstellung. Sein signifikantester Vorteil ist das
relativ hohe Drehmoment bei niedriger Drehzahl, weshalb er auch als
getriebeloser Direktantrieb für höherwertige Stellaufgaben, z. B.
in der Robotik, interessant ist. Es existieren jedoch eine Reihe
von prinzipbedingten Nachteilen, die dem Einsatz des Motors selbst
bei prädestinierten Spezialanwendungen entgegenstehen. Neben einigen
technologischen Aspekten und der Kostenfrage, sind dies insbesondere
das nichtlineare und zeitvariante Systemverhalten und die relativ
aufwendige Speisung des Motors mit Wechselspannung im Ultraschallbereich.
Das Systemverhalten macht eine zumindest einfache Antriebsregelung
praktisch unverzichtbar. In den letzten 15 Jahren haben zahlreiche
Forscher an Antriebsregelungen und Stromrichtern für Wanderwellenmotoren
gearbeitet. Ergebnis ist eine nahezu unüberschaubare Vielfalt unterschiedlicher
Konzepte, die in zahlreichen Veröffentlichungen vorgestellt wurden.
Bislang erfolgte jedoch weder ein direkter Vergleich, noch eine geeignete
Einordnung. Potentielle Anwender von Piezomotoren ziehen meist Lösungen
mit konventionellen Elektromotoren vor, auch wenn dadurch Optimierungspotential
verschenkt wird. Grund hierfür ist u. a., daß sie das Risiko für
die Entwicklung ihrer Systeme als zu hoch einschätzen. Dies liegt
nicht allein an den genannten Eigenschaften der Motoren, sondern
auch an der fehlenden Information über die Eignung unterschiedlicher
Regelungs- und Speisekonzepte. Die vorliegenden Arbeit behandelt
den geregelten Antrieb mit Wanderwellenmotor als Gesamtsystem (Stromrichter
und Antriebsregelung). Es werden im wesentlichen zwei Ziele verfolgt:
1. Es sollen Stromrichter und Antriebsregelungen für Wanderwellenmotoren
unter Berücksichtigung von anwendungsorientierten Kriterien, wie
z. B. Dynamik und Realisierungsaufwand, entwickelt bzw. weiterentwickelt
werden. 2. Die Vor- und Nachteile unterschiedlicher Stromrichter
und Antriebsregelungen sollen untersucht werden, wobei insbesondere
der Einfluß des Stromrichterkonzepts auf die Antriebsregelung interessiert.
In diesem Zusammenhang werden die aus der Literatur bekannten Regelungskonzepte
eingeordnet und bezüglich Leistungsfähigkeit und Aufwand gegenübergestellt.
Mit diesem Beitrag soll ein Überblick geschaffen werden, der eine
Hilfestellung für die Wahl eines geeigneten Stromrichter- und Regelungskonzepts
gibt. Dies dient u. a. dazu, die Akzeptanz für Piezomotoren beim
Anwender zu erhöhen. Außerdem können mit Hilfe der Übersicht gezielt
neue Forschungsansätze erarbeitet werden. 2 1 Einleitung Abgesehen
von Kap. 2, in dem das Funktionsprinzip des Wanderwellenmotors und
das aus [4] bekannte Motormodell erläutert wird, gliedert sich die
Arbeit in drei Teile: In Kap. 3 werden drei unterschiedliche Stromrichterkonzepte
für Wanderwellenmotoren gegenübergestellt. Darunter befindet sich
auch ein für Wanderwellenmotoren neuartiges Stromrichterkonzept,
das ohne die üblichen resonant ausgelegten Ausgangsfilter auskommt.
Neben allgemeinen Aspekten wie Baugröße oder Wirkungsgrad, wird auch
die Dynamik des Stromrichterstellglieds untersucht. In Kap. 4 wird
die Biegewellenregelung aus [4] weiterentwickelt. Im Vordergrund
steht nicht die Verbesserung der Regeldynamik, sondern eine Vereinfachung
der Antriebsregelung, da sie in ihrer ursprünglichen Form aufgrund
des hohen Aufwands für reale Anwendungen nicht praktikabel ist. Kap.
5 beinhaltet eine systematische Gegenüberstellung von Regelungskonzepten.
Neben einer allgemeinen Einordnung werden drei Regelungskonzepte
genauer untersucht. Darunter befindet sich auch eine weiterentwickelte
Variante des drehzahlgeregelten Antriebs mit Wanderwellenmotor aus
[4]. In jedem Kapitel wird zunächst auch der jeweils thematisch relevante
Stand der Technik erläutert. Außerdem werden an geeigneten Stellen
Resümees zu den jeweiligen Ergebnisse gezogen. Aufgrund des zumeist
ähnlichen Wirkungsprinzips von Piezomotoren lassen sich viele Ergebnisse
dieser Arbeit zumindest teilweise auch auf andere Typen von Piezomotoren
übertragen. So wird z. B. in Kap. 3.2.5 ein Stromrichter für einen
Mehr-Massen-Piezomotor vorgestellt, dessen Projektierung auf den
Erfahrungen mit Stromrichtern und Regelungen für Wanderwellenmotoren
beruht. Wie bei den meisten Piezomotoren handelt es sich beim Wanderwellenmotor
um einen resonant- betriebenen Piezoaktor, bei dem durch einen piezokeramischen
Wandler resonante mechanische Schwingungen im Ultraschallbereich
angeregt werden. Aufgrund des identischen physikalischen Wirkungsprinzips
ergeben sich damit auch viele Parallelen zu anderen resonant-betriebenen
Piezoaktoren, die z. B. zum Ultraschallschneiden und -schweißen genutzt
werden. An den jeweiligen Stellen erfolgen Hinweise auf die mögliche
Übertragbarkeit der Ergebnisse bzw. auf signifikante Unterschiede.
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Schulte2004,
  author = {Thomas Schulte},
  title = {Stromrichter- und Regelungskonzepte für Ultraschall-Wanderwellenmotoren},
  school = {Fakultät für Elektrotechnik, Informatik und Mathematik der Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2004}
}
Schulz, B., Paiz, C., Hagemeyer, J., Mathapati, S., Porrmann, M. and Böcker, J. Run-Time Reconfiguration of FPGA-Based Drive Controllers 2007 12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark12th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract In this contribution a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
is used as target architecture to implement drive controllers. A
novel concept for generic run-time switching between FPGA-based drive
controllers is presented. The controller switching is done by using
partial run-time hardware reconfiguration, which allows the implementation
of various controllers without having to realize them all on the
FPGA concurrently. It is shown that time-sharing of the FPGA resources
can provide a resource-efficient implementation. A system architecture,
which enables the realization of this scheme, is presented. A hard
switching between controllers is implemented, for which the initial
internal states of the controller to-be-loaded are computed. Experimental
results show that the proposed scheme works satisfactory, opening
new possibilities to the implementation of such adaptive control
schemes.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schulz2007,
  author = {B. Schulz and C. Paiz and J. Hagemeyer and S. Mathapati and M. Porrmann and J. Böcker},
  title = {Run-Time Reconfiguration of FPGA-Based Drive Controllers},
  booktitle = {12th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  journal = {12th European Power Electronics and Adjustable Speed Drives Conference, Aalborg, Denmark},
  year = {2007}
}
Schulz, B., Pottharst, A., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Modelling of Influences to a Linear-Drive-System 2004 11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences, EPE-PEMC 2004, Riga, Latvia11th Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schulz2004,
  author = {Schulz, B. and Pottharst, A. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Modelling of Influences to a Linear-Drive-System},
  booktitle = {11th Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)},
  journal = {11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences, EPE-PEMC 2004, Riga, Latvia},
  year = {2004}
}
Schulz, B., Yang, B., Pottharst, A. and Grotstollen, H. Das Linearantriebssystem der NBP-Versuchsanlage 2003 ISCoM 2003, International Scientific Colloquium on Mechatronics  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schulz2003,
  author = {Schulz, B. and Yang, B. and Pottharst, A. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Das Linearantriebssystem der NBP-Versuchsanlage},
  booktitle = {ISCoM 2003, International Scientific Colloquium on Mechatronics},
  year = {2003}
}
Sharabash, H., Krishna, D., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. High efficiency photovoltaic power conditioning system 2013 PCIM 2013  inproceedings  
Abstract: A new topology for photovoltaic Power Conditioning System (PCS) with
high efficiency under wide input voltage range of the photovoltaic
array is introduced. In fact, this redundant topology consists of
two new components, one for DC/DC converter and one for inverter.
The presented topology of DC/DC converter enhances the efficiency
by partial power sharing of DC/DC converters depending on input voltage.
Producing a multi-output voltage convenient to the inverter topology.
Simulation of a 25-kW PCS in terms of efficiency to verify the proposed
topology.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sharabash2013,
  author = {Hosam Sharabash and DVMM Krishna and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {High efficiency photovoltaic power conditioning system},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2013},
  year = {2013}
}
Solanki, J. High Power Factor High-Current Variable-Voltage Rectifiers 2015 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Solanki2015,
  author = {Jitendra Solanki},
  title = {High Power Factor High-Current Variable-Voltage Rectifiers},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2015}
}
Solanki, J., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. A Completely Modular Power Converter for High-Power High-Current DC Applications 2013 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON2013)  inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper presents a completely modular power

supply for high-power and high-current DC applications. The

proposed power converter utilizes modular blocks consisting of a

half bridge cell followed by an isolated DC-DC converter. The

modules are connected in series at the input AC side in the

fashion of a modular multilevel rectifier. At the output DC side,

the modules are connected in parallel to supply a high-current

load. The proposed configuration provides advantages like

modularity, isolation, high efficiency, high input power factor,

good input current quality and controlled output current over

the full operating range. Circuit configuration, control and

performance of the proposed system are discussed in detail.

Simulation results are presented to verify the performance and

effectiveness of the system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Solanki2013a,
  author = {Jitendra Solanki and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {A Completely Modular Power Converter for High-Power High-Current DC Applications},
  booktitle = {39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON2013)},
  year = {2013}
}
Solanki, J., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Wallmeier, P. Comparison of Thyristor-Rectifier with Hybrid Filter and Chopper-Rectifier for High-Power, High-Current Application 2013 PCIM 2013  inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of two rectifier-systems for high-power,
high-current application. The most popular choice of circuit topology
for this type of application is a multi-pulse thyristor rectifier.
Active or passive filters are added to the thyristor rectifier for
improving the power factor and reducing current THD. Other type of
solution comprises of a multi-pulse diode rectifier followed by a
multi-phase DC chopper (chopper-rectifier). A comprehensive system
level approach is chosen for comparison of 12-pulse thyristor rectifier
with a hybrid filter and 12-pulse diode rectifier with a multi-phase
DC chopper. Comparison is carried out in terms of system performance,
efficiency, size and cost for an industrial load with given system
specifications.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Solanki2013b,
  author = {Jitendra Solanki and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker and Peter Wallmeier},
  title = {Comparison of Thyristor-Rectifier with Hybrid Filter and Chopper-Rectifier for High-Power, High-Current Application},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2013},
  year = {2013}
}
Solanki, J., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Wallmeier, P. Analysis, Design and Control of 1MW, High Power Factor and High Current Rectifier System 2012 Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper presents a 1MW, 12-pulse thyristor rectifier with passive
filter and DSTATCOM for low voltage, high current industrial dc loads.
The considered process act (electrically) as a current controlled,
variable voltage load. Moreover the load characteristic varies extensively
with number of hours of operation. Variable compensation capabilities
are required to provide harmonic and reactive power compensation
for such kind of loads. A Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM)
is used to provide variable reactive power compensation. Along with
it an 11th harmonic passive filter with substantial amount of reactive
power support is provided to reduce required rating of DSTATCOM.
Design and control of system are carried out such that input

power factor remains greater than 0.98 and THD remains below 5%. Simulation
results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Solanki2012,
  author = {Jitendra Solanki and Norbert Fröhleke and Joachim Böcker and Peter Wallmeier},
  title = {Analysis, Design and Control of 1MW, High Power Factor and High Current Rectifier System},
  booktitle = {Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)},
  year = {2012}
}
Specht, A. Ermittlung der Rotortemperatur einer Synchronmaschine mit eingebetteten Permanentmagneten für einen automobilen Traktionsantrieb mittels Beobachter basierend auf elektrischen Größen 2014 School: Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Specht2014,
  author = {Andreas Specht},
  title = {Ermittlung der Rotortemperatur einer Synchronmaschine mit eingebetteten Permanentmagneten für einen automobilen Traktionsantrieb mittels Beobachter basierend auf elektrischen Größen},
  school = {Leistungselektronik und Elektrische Antriebstechnik, Universität Paderborn},
  year = {2014}
}
Specht, A. and Böcker, J. Observer for the rotor temperature of IPMSM 2010 Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), 2010 14th International, pp. T4-12-T4-15  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpechtBoecker2010,
  author = {Specht, A. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Observer for the rotor temperature of IPMSM},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), 2010 14th International},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {T4-12-T4-15},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2010.5606818}
}
Specht, A., Ober-Blöbaum, S., Wallscheid, O., Romaus, C. and Böcker, J. Discrete-time model of an IPMSM based on variational integrators 2013 Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013 IEEE International, pp. 1411-1417  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are widely used
as automobile traction drives for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.
Since motor control is commonly implemented on a digital platform,
a discrete-time motor model is needed. With respect to the calculation
effort the discretization is usually done via a first-order explicit
Euler approximation within the rotor frame coordinates. For IPMSM
traction drives this approach is leading to a systematic modeling
error, since the flux trajectory degenerates from a circle to a polygon
at higher speeds. Consequently, this approach leads to a speed-depending
discretization error, which can have a significant impact on control
performance. Hence, this contribution presents a discrete-time model
of an IPMSM based on variational integrators (VI). Starting with
a variational principle the Euler-Lagrange equations provide a physical
continuous-time motor model. By applying a discrete version of the
variational principle we receive a symplectic discrete-time IPMSM
model without increasing the calculation effort in comparison to
the classical Euler discretization. Simulative as well as experimental
investigations confirm the benefit of a VI based discrete-time motor
model concerning the transient and stationary system model accuracy.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpechtOberBloebaum2013,
  author = {Specht, A. and Ober-Blöbaum, S. and Wallscheid, O. and Romaus, C. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Discrete-time model of an IPMSM based on variational integrators},
  booktitle = {Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013 IEEE International},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1411-1417},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IEMDC.2013.6556322}
}
Specht, A., Wallscheid, O. and Bocker, J. Determination of rotor temperature for an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine using a precise flux observer 2014 Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International, pp. 1501-1507  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In this paper an enhanced method to determine the rotor temperature
of permanent magnet synchronous machines during dynamic operations
is presented. The approach is based on a fundamental wave flux observer
and is therefore independent of coolant conditions to a large extend.
This contribution continues the work presented earlier, where the
temperature observer was introduced for steady state operation in
exemplary operating points. Hence, an extension to dynamic operation
in a wide speed and torque range is proposed. Consequently, the focus
now lies on a discrete-time machine modelling as well as on the parameter
identification. Measurement results prove the satisfying performance
of the observer.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Specht2014a,
  author = {Specht, Andreas and Wallscheid, Oliver and Bocker, Joachim},
  title = {Determination of rotor temperature for an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine using a precise flux observer},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {1501-1507},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IPEC.2014.6869784}
}
Stille, K.S., Böcker, J., Fröhleke, N., Bettentrup, R. and Kaiser, I. Local grid load coordination for load-shiftable domestic appliances in a variable-tariff environment 2016 Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe), pp. 1-10  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Stille2016a,
  author = {K. S. Stille and J. Böcker and N. Fröhleke and R. Bettentrup and I. Kaiser},
  title = {Local grid load coordination for load-shiftable domestic appliances in a variable-tariff environment},
  booktitle = {Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe)},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1--10},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2016.7695583}
}
Stille, K.S., Böcker, J., Fröhleke, N., Bettentrup, R. and Kaiser, I. Supervisional load optimization for households with intelligent domestic appliances 2016 Proc. Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG) 2016 10th Int. Conf. Compatibility, pp. 152-157  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Stille2016b,
  author = {K. S. Stille and J. Böcker and N. Fröhleke and R. Bettentrup and I. Kaiser},
  title = {Supervisional load optimization for households with intelligent domestic appliances},
  booktitle = {Proc. Power Electronics and Power Engineering (CPE-POWERENG) 2016 10th Int. Conf. Compatibility},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {152--157},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2016.7544176}
}
Stille, K.S., Böcker, J., Bettentrup, R. and Kaiser, I. Hierarchisches Optimierungskonzept für die Laststeuerung von Haushaltsgeraeten 2015 ETG-Fachtagung \ Von Smart Grids zu Smart Markets 2015  inproceedings  
Abstract: Haushaltsgeräte aus der Klasse der “ Weißen Ware”br> tragen mit etwa einem Drittel (34,2% BDEW2013) zum privaten
Energieverbrauch bei.

Diese Veröffentlichung präsentiert eine Struktur und die dafür notwendige
optimale Betriebsstrategie für Weiße Ware in einer Umgebung mit Strompreisen,
die wegen der Volatilität der Regenerativen Energien stark fluktuieren.

Das vorgeschlagene Konzept nutzt dafür ein dezentrales Energiemanagementsystem,
das über drei Hierarchieebenen verteilt ist: die Geräteebene, die
Haushaltsebene und die Ortsnetzebene.

Auf der Geräteebene nutzt dieses Konzept zusätzlich Betriebsflexibilitäten
der Haushaltsgeräte aus.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Stille2015,
  author = {Stille, Karl Stephan and Böcker, Joachim and Bettentrup, Ralf and Kaiser, Ingo},
  title = {Hierarchisches Optimierungskonzept für die Laststeuerung von Haushaltsgeraeten},
  booktitle = {ETG-Fachtagung \ Von Smart Grids zu Smart Markets 2015},
  year = {2015}
}
Stille, K.S. and Böcker, J. Local Demand Response and Load Planning System for Intelligent Domestic Appliances 2015 4th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA 2015)  inproceedings  
Abstract: An energy management system for intelligent domestic appliances is
presented, optimizing the operation of appliances in an environment
with time-variable energy tariffs. In a standalone operation this
results in a least-cost operation of the appliance. As these time-variable
tariffs reflect the availability of generated power, particularly
of renewables, the proposed system helps consuming electrical energy
when renewable generation is high and vice versa.

By static load shifting the process cost can be lowered. The proposed
system guarantees the same process results tough operation programs
are different or the process is interrupted. By this the load shifting
potential is maximized.


Besides the standalone mode, the proposed system can be the viewed
as lowest level optimizer in a hierarchical optimization structure
spanning from the domestic appliance over the complete household
up to the local distribution grid or even further. In this operation
mode the optimizer pre-optimizes the possible operation programs
and starting times of the appliance and sends a set of possible optimal
and near-optimal solutions to the household energy management system.

By pre-optimizing the resulting load flexibilities and offering them
to the household level optimizer, these flexibilities can be used
for peak shaving or valley filling on that or even on a higher level.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Stille2015a,
  author = {Stille, K. S. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Local Demand Response and Load Planning System for Intelligent Domestic Appliances},
  booktitle = {4th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA 2015)},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2015}
}
Stille, K.S., Böcker, J., Fröhleke, N., Bettentrup, R. and Kaiser, I. Integration of Home Photovoltaic Generation into Electricity Tariff for Load Optimization 2016 4th International Istanbul Smart Grid and Cities Congress  inproceedings  
Abstract: An energy management system for intelligent domestic appliances is
presented, optimizing the operation of appliances in an environment
with time-variable energy tariffs. In a standalone operation this
results in a least-cost operation of the appliance. As these time-variable
tariffs reflect the availability of generated power, particularly
of renewables, the proposed system helps consuming electrical energy
when renewable generation is high and vice versa.

By static load shifting the process cost can be lowered. The proposed
system guarantees the same process results tough operation programs
are different or the process is interrupted. By this the load shifting
potential is maximized.


Besides the standalone mode, the proposed system can be the viewed
as lowest level optimizer in a hierarchical optimization structure
spanning from the domestic appliance over the complete household
up to the local distribution grid or even further. In this operation
mode the optimizer pre-optimizes the possible operation programs
and starting times of the appliance and sends a set of possible optimal
and near-optimal solutions to the household energy management system.

By pre-optimizing the resulting load flexibilities and offering them
to the household level optimizer, these flexibilities can be used
for peak shaving or valley filling on that or even on a higher level.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Stille2016,
  author = {Stille, K. S. and Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N. and Bettentrup, R. and Kaiser, I.},
  title = {Integration of Home Photovoltaic Generation into Electricity Tariff for Load Optimization},
  booktitle = {4th International Istanbul Smart Grid and Cities Congress},
  publisher = {(submitted for publication)},
  year = {2016}
}
Stille, K.S., Romaus, C. and Böcker, J. Online Capable Optimized Planning of Power Split in a Hybrid Energy Storage System 2013 Eurocon 2013, pp. 1158-1163  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StilleRomausBoecker13,
  author = {Stille, K. S. and Romaus, C. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Online Capable Optimized Planning of Power Split in a Hybrid Energy Storage System},
  booktitle = {Eurocon 2013},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1158-1163}
}
Tao, J., Cao, Z., Sun, M., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Full Digital Implementation of an Optimized Modulation Strategy for Series-Parallel Resonant Converter 2012 PCIM 2012  inproceedings  
Abstract: The series-parallel resonant converter is one of the most popular
topologies among resonant converters. In order to minimize its switching
losses, an optimized modulation strategy was proposed and implemented
using a hybrid hardware structure. In this contribution the working
principles of the state-of-the-art hybrid solution and its disadvantages
are analyzed first. In order to overcome those drawbacks, a full
digital optimized modulation control unit is developed. Aiming to
ensure zero-voltage switching in the converter start-up phase, a
novel operation strategy is proposed and implemented. Experimental
results are given to prove the feasibility of the novel digital optimized
modulation control unit.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{TaoCaoSun2012,
  author = {Tao, J. and Cao, Z. and Sun, M. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Full Digital Implementation of an Optimized Modulation Strategy for Series-Parallel Resonant Converter},
  booktitle = {PCIM 2012},
  year = {2012}
}
Tong, L., Zou, H., Sun, M. and Böcker, J. Low Latency Hybrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Railway Traction System 2013 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2013 IEEE, pp. 1-5  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Tong2013,
  author = {Tong, Laisheng and Zou, Huanqing and Sun, Meng and Böcker, Joachim},
  title = {Low Latency Hybrid Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator for Railway Traction System},
  booktitle = {Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), 2013 IEEE},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1-5},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/VPPC.2013.6671735}
}
Uebener, S. and Hammerer, H. Virtuelle E-Maschine als Werkzeug in der Entwicklung von Antriebsreglern 2013 ATZelektronik
Vol. 8, pp. 198 - 203 
article  
Abstract: Derzeit werden LithiumIonenBatterien für den Einsatz in Hybrid und
Elektrofahrzeugen favorisiert. Arsenal Research, ein Unternehmen
der Austrian Reseach Centers, analysiert den derzeitigen Stand der
Technik sowie die Potenziale des Energiespeichers – und dies sowohl
auf Zellwie auf Systemebene. Der Entwicklungsdienstleister erklärt
einige Aspekte des Designprozesses und geht auf wichtige Aufgabenstellungen
ein, die auf dem Weg zur breiten Anwendung im Automobilsektor noch
gelöst werden müssen.
BibTeX:
@article{Uebener2013,
  author = {Uebener, S. and Hammerer, H.},
  title = {Virtuelle E-Maschine als Werkzeug in der Entwicklung von Antriebsreglern},
  journal = {ATZelektronik},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {8},
  pages = {198 - 203}
}
Vogt, T., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Mehrziel-Speicherbetriebsstrategie für industrielle Microgrids 2015 ETG-Fachtagung \ Von Smart Grids zu Smart Markets 2015  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Vogt2015,
  author = {Vogt, T. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Mehrziel-Speicherbetriebsstrategie für industrielle Microgrids},
  booktitle = {ETG-Fachtagung \ Von Smart Grids zu Smart Markets 2015},
  year = {2015}
}
Vogt, T., Pahl, R., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Determination of storage loss characteristics with reasonable measurement and calculation effort 2016 Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe), pp. 1-9  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Vogt2016a,
  author = {T. Vogt and R. Pahl and N. Fröhleke and J. Böcker},
  title = {Determination of storage loss characteristics with reasonable measurement and calculation effort},
  booktitle = {Proc. 18th European Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'16 ECCE Europe)},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1--9},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2016.7695689}
}
Vogt, T., Peters, A., Frohleke, N., Bocker, J. and Kempen, S. Power profile based selection and operation optimization of parallel-connected power converter combinations 2014 Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International, pp. 2887-2892  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Many electrical sources and loads are operating at different power
levels, partly with full and partly with only a small percentage
of their rated power (e.g. photovoltaic systems, elevators or electric
heaters). For such devices the connection to the grid can be more
efficient with several parallel-connected converters instead of a
larger single one. A system of parallel-connected converters facilitates
the potential to increase the overall efficiency of the system, either
by the selection of different topologies and switching devices of
the particular converters or by different operating strategies to
split the power between the single converters. This paper presents
a method to optimize the operating strategy of such systems with
different parallel-operating converters, including the optimal choice
of an arrangement based on a specific power demand profile. These
two topics sound different but the optimal converter combination
can only be selected if the most efficient operation strategy is
available. Therefore these topics are interrelated.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Vogt2014,
  author = {Vogt, T. and Peters, A and Frohleke, N. and Bocker, J. and Kempen, S.},
  title = {Power profile based selection and operation optimization of parallel-connected power converter combinations},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Conference (IPEC-Hiroshima 2014 - ECCE-ASIA), 2014 International},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {2887-2892},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/IPEC.2014.6870091}
}
Wallscheid, O., Ammann, U. and Boecker, J. Real-Time Capable Model Predictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using Particle Swarm Optimisation 2016 Proc. Renewable Energy and Energy Management PCIM Europe 2016; Int. Exhibition and Conf. for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, pp. 1-8  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wallscheid2016,
  author = {O. Wallscheid and U. Ammann and J. Boecker},
  title = {Real-Time Capable Model Predictive Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Using Particle Swarm Optimisation},
  booktitle = {Proc. Renewable Energy and Energy Management PCIM Europe 2016; Int. Exhibition and Conf. for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {1--8}
}
Wallscheid, O. and Böcker, J. Global Identification of a Low-Order Lumped-Parameter Thermal Network for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors 2016 IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Vol. 31(1), pp. 354-365 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Wallscheid2016a,
  author = {O. Wallscheid and J. Böcker},
  title = {Global Identification of a Low-Order Lumped-Parameter Thermal Network for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {31},
  number = {1},
  pages = {354--365},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2015.2473673}
}
Wallscheid, O. and Böcker, J. Wirkungsgradoptimale Arbeitspunktsteuerung für einen permanenterregten Synchronmotor mit vergrabenen Magneten unter Berücksichtigung von Temperatureinflüssen 2013 Internationaler ETG-Kongress  inproceedings  
Abstract: Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit den Temperatureinflüssen auf das Betriebsverhalten
von permanenterregten Synchron-

motoren. Durch Vermessung eines typischen Traktionsmotors für den
automobilen Einsatz kann gezeigt werden, dass

die Temperaturverhältnisse im Motor einen signifikanten Einfluss sowohl
auf die elektrischen Verluste als auch auf die

Drehmomentgenauigkeit haben können. Daher wird eine kennfeldbasierte
Arbeitspunktsteuerung für den wirkungsgrad-

optimalen Betrieb zur Berücksichtigung von Temperatureinflüssen vorgestellt.
Verifikationsmessungen bestätigen, dass

Wirkungsgradsteigerungen im Bereich von 0,1 bis 0,2 % möglich sind.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wallscheid2013,
  author = {Oliver Wallscheid and Joachim Böcker},
  title = {Wirkungsgradoptimale Arbeitspunktsteuerung für einen permanenterregten Synchronmotor mit vergrabenen Magneten unter Berücksichtigung von Temperatureinflüssen},
  booktitle = {Internationaler ETG-Kongress},
  year = {2013}
}
Wallscheid, O., Meyer, M. and Böcker, J. An open-loop operation strategy for induction motors considering iron losses and saturation effects in automotive applications 2015 Proc. IEEE 11th Int. Conf. Power Electronics and Drive Systems, pp. 981-985  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wallscheid2015c,
  author = {O. Wallscheid and M. Meyer and J. Böcker},
  title = {An open-loop operation strategy for induction motors considering iron losses and saturation effects in automotive applications},
  booktitle = {Proc. IEEE 11th Int. Conf. Power Electronics and Drive Systems},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {981--985},
  doi = {http://doi.org/10.1109/PEDS.2015.7203404}
}
Wetzel, H., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J. and Ide, P. High Efficient 3kW Three-Stage Power Supply 2006 APECDallas, USA.IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract: Today's power supplies for the IT sector and telecommunication
field show typically a two-stage setup consisting of PFC rectifier
and DC/DC stage. The DC/DC stage is designed according to hold-up
time requirements, thus it does not work optimally at nominal conditions.
The insertion of an additional stage between PFC rectifier and DC/DC
converter yields an increase of total efficiency and minimization
of the volume and weight of the power supply. In this contribution
several topology candidates for high power three-stage power supplies
are compared with state-of-the-art two-stage candidates in terms
of efficiency, complexity and durability. Accordingly, the best candidate
is pre-selected, simulated, developed and is built as prototype.
The system modeling of the complete power supply is required for
design of the control circuit. A built-up prototype of the three-stage
power supply is evaluated and tuning measures are termed. Concluding
measurements are discussed and supplemented by final conclusions.
The keys of the proposed three-stage solution are particularly the
synchronous rectification at an output voltage of 12 V, interleaving
of four parallel-connected output stages for best distribution of
3 kW output power, and small volume resulting in a height of 1.75"=44
mm, which is only one unit within the rack.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wetzel2006,
  author = {Wetzel, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. and Ide, P.},
  title = {High Efficient 3kW Three-Stage Power Supply},
  booktitle = {IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC)},
  journal = {APECDallas, USA.},
  year = {2006}
}
Wetzel, H., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J., Ide, P. and Kunze, J. Fuel Cell Inverter System with Integrated Auxiliary Supply 2005 EPE 2005, Dresden, Deutschland11th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wetzel2005,
  author = {Wetzel, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. and Ide, P. and Kunze, J.},
  title = {Fuel Cell Inverter System with Integrated Auxiliary Supply},
  booktitle = {11th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  journal = {EPE 2005, Dresden, Deutschland},
  year = {2005}
}
Wetzel, H., Fröhleke, N., Böcker, J., Ouchouche, S., Bezanere, D. and Cugnon, F. Modelling and Control of a Multi-Mass Ultrasonic Motor for Airborne Applications 2006 Int. Electronics Conference (IECON)Paris, Frankreich.32nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract Environmental and fire risks together with high maintenance
costs are the main drivers in recent years to replace hydraulic actuators
in aircrafts by electromechanical actuators. Unluckily, a solution
based on electromagnetic motors with reduction gears results in increased
weight and electrical peak power of the drive train for typical brake
requirements. A promising actuator candidate with high torque and
low inertia for airborne applications is the multi-mass ultrasonic
motor (MM-USM) derived from the well known travelling-wave type motor
(TW-USM). This contribution focuses on the modelling of the MM-USM
and proposes a control concept for this motor as drive component
of a novel airborne brake actuator: After outlining the operational
principle of the motor, a mechanical model is presented, which incorporates
sliding and sticking operations of the friction contact. A first
validation of the motor model via FEA calculations is supplementing
this paper.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wetzel2006a,
  author = {Wetzel, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. and Ouchouche, S. and Bezanere, D. and Cugnon, F.},
  title = {Modelling and Control of a Multi-Mass Ultrasonic Motor for Airborne Applications},
  booktitle = {32nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  journal = {Int. Electronics Conference (IECON)Paris, Frankreich.},
  year = {2006}
}
Wetzel, H., Fröhleke, N. and Grotstollen, H. Topologies for Low-voltage Regulator Modules 2003 ISICT 2003, 5th International Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology  inproceedings  
Abstract: Three different topologies for low voltage regulator modules are compared
in this paper. A Push-Pull converter (PPC) equipped with a novel
hybrid gating scheme, which supports synchronous and external driving
is proposed and compared to a Two-Transistor Forward Converter (2TFC)
with a simple enhanced gating circuit of the MOSFET based rectification.
Finally, an asymmetrical driven Half Bridge converter (AHBC) with
integrated magnetic components and synchronous rectifier (SR) supplements
the comparison. This topology was discussed only recently with respect
to the low voltage topic. Prototypes for three topologies were developed,
operated at 48V input voltage and deliver 1.7V at 18A output current.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wetzel2003,
  author = {Wetzel, H. and Fröhleke, N. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Topologies for Low-voltage Regulator Modules},
  booktitle = {ISICT 2003, 5th International Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology},
  year = {2003}
}
Wetzel, H., Li, R., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Piezoelektrische Flugzeugbremse 2007 Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme 2007Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme  inproceedings  
Abstract: Zusammenfassung Heutige hydraulische Flugzeugbremsen sind sehr zuverlässig,
sie haben jedoch auch Nachteile wie hohen Wartungsaufwand, Brandrisiko
und Umweltprobleme. Dies führt zur Entwicklung elektromagnetisch
angetriebener Bremsen, die aber hinsichtlich Gewicht, Massenträgheit
und Spitzenleistung problematisch sind. In dieser Publikation wird
eine neuartige piezoelektrische Flugzeugbremse vorge-stellt, die
im Rahmen eines EU-Projektes entwickelt wird. Zentrale Komponente
des neuen Konzepts ist ein Multimassen-Ultraschallmotor (MM-USM)
mit seiner elektronischen Stromversorgung und der Regelung.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wetzel2007,
  author = {H. Wetzel and R. Li and N. Fröhleke and J. Böcker},
  title = {Piezoelektrische Flugzeugbremse},
  booktitle = {Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme},
  journal = {Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme 2007},
  year = {2007}
}
Wetzel, H., Siegel, A., Njiende, H.D., Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J. Low Voltage Asymmetrical Half-Bridge Converter with Integrated Magnetics 2004 11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences, EPE-PEMC 2004, Riga, Latvia11th Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Wetzel2004,
  author = {Wetzel, H. and Siegel, A. and Njiende, H. D. and Fröhleke, N. and Böcker, J.},
  title = {Low Voltage Asymmetrical Half-Bridge Converter with Integrated Magnetics},
  booktitle = {11th Int. Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences (EPE-PEMC)},
  journal = {11th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conferences, EPE-PEMC 2004, Riga, Latvia},
  year = {2004}
}
Witting, K., Schulz, B., Dellnitz, M., Böcker, J. and Fröhleke, N. A new approach for online multiobjective optimization of mechatronical systems 2008 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)
Vol. 10(3), pp. pp. 223-231 
article URL 
Abstract: We present a new concept for online multiobjective optimization and
its application to the optimization of the operating point assignment
for a doubly-fed linear motor. This problem leads to a time-dependent
multiobjective optimization problem. In contrast to classical optimizationwhere
the aim is to find the (global) minimum of a single function, we
want to simultaneously minimize k objective functions. The solution
to this problem is given by the set of optimal compromises, the so-called
Pareto set. In the case of the linear motor, there are two conflicting
aims which both have to be maximized: the degree of efficiency and
the inverter utilization factor. The objective functions depend on
velocity, force and power, which can be modeled as time-dependent
parameters. For a fixed point of time, the entire corresponding Pareto
set can be computed by means of a recently developed set-oriented
numerical method. An online computation of the time-dependent Pareto
sets is not possible, because the computation itself is too complex.
Therefore, we combine the computation of the Pareto set with numerical
path following techniques. Under certain smoothness assumptions the
set of Pareto points can be characterized as the set of zeros of
a certain function. Here, path following allows to track the evolution
of a given solution point through time.
BibTeX:
@article{D1_WittingSchulz2008,
  author = {Witting, Katrin and Schulz, Bernd and Dellnitz, Michael and Böcker, Joachim and Fröhleke, Norbert},
  title = {A new approach for online multiobjective optimization of mechatronical systems},
  journal = {International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {10(3)},
  pages = {pp. 223-231},
  url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/9137215j72h865u5/}
}
Yang, B. and Grotstollen, H. Direct Torque Control of a Singled-sided Linear Induction Motor based on Sliding Mode. 2003 The 4th International Symposium on LINEAR DRIVES FOR INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS (LDIA 2003)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A single-sided linear induction motor with reaction plates is introduced
into a doubly fed long stator linear drive railway system in order
to solve the switch problem and can be also applied in little-used
areas of the railway. Due to the irregularity and incontinuity of
the reaction plate in the switch area, a robust drive controller
is required. As a result, a direct torque control based on sliding
mode is applied, since it has shown superior dynamic performance
and can react to critical environmental conditions fast and flexibly.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Yang2003a,
  author = {Yang, B. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Direct Torque Control of a Singled-sided Linear Induction Motor based on Sliding Mode.},
  booktitle = {The 4th International Symposium on LINEAR DRIVES FOR INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS (LDIA 2003)},
  year = {2003}
}
Yang, B. and Grotstollen, H. Control Strategy for a Novel Combined Operation of Long Stator and Short Stator Linear Drive System. 2003 10th European Conference on Power Electronis and Applications (EPE 2003)  inproceedings  
Abstract: To realize a highly flexible propulsion system, a combined drive of
long stator and short stator linear motors is applied to operate
vehicles of the NBP (Neue Bahntechnik Paderborn, i.e. New Rail Technology
of Paderborn in English) railway system. The control strategy of
this combination is described. The presented experimental results,
which show the control performance, are based on extensive theoretical
investigations.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Yang2003b,
  author = {Yang, B. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Control Strategy for a Novel Combined Operation of Long Stator and Short Stator Linear Drive System.},
  booktitle = {10th European Conference on Power Electronis and Applications (EPE 2003)},
  year = {2003}
}
Yang, B. and Grotstollen, H. Design of the Power Supply for the Doubly-Fed Linear Motor of the RailCab Test Track 2007 Southern African Universities' Power Engineering Conference (SAUPEC 2007)16th Southern African Universities' Power Engineering Conference (SAUPEC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract. With RailCab a new railway system ha been suggested which
makes use of autonomously travelling vehicles and linear motor technology.
At the test track which was built at University of Paderborn in scale
1:2.5 a doubly-fed induction motor has been chosen for driving the
vehicles and transferring all energy which is required on board the
vehicles. In the paper the basic scheme of the stator’s power supply,
calculation of the voltage and power requirement and partitioning
of the long-stator are discussed in detail.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Yang2007,
  author = {B. Yang and H. Grotstollen},
  title = {Design of the Power Supply for the Doubly-Fed Linear Motor of the RailCab Test Track},
  booktitle = {16th Southern African Universities' Power Engineering Conference (SAUPEC)},
  journal = {Southern African Universities' Power Engineering Conference (SAUPEC 2007)},
  year = {2007}
}
Yang, B., Meyer, M. and Grotstollen, H. Radio Based Control of a Linear Motor for the NBP Railway System 2003 ISICT 2003, 5th International Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology  inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper proposes a new coupled pitch and velocity control of a
doubly-fed linear motor, which is applied for a novel mechatronic
railway system based on the operation of shuttles. Compared with
conventional trains, a single axle undercarriage is developed for
the shuttle. The primary of the linear motor is installed between
the rails and the secondary is fixed on the axle only via the middle.
In order to prevent the secondary from pitching and maintain a constant
air gap between the primary and the secondary, the secondary windings
are divided into two parts to be supplied separately. A decoupled
pitch and velocity control is introduced in [1] in detail. Because
the currents for pitch control don’t contribute to velocity control,
they cause higher power losses of the system. Therefore, a coupled
pitch and velocity control is developed and presented in this paper.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Yang2003,
  author = {Yang, B. and Meyer, M. and Grotstollen, H.},
  title = {Radio Based Control of a Linear Motor for the NBP Railway System},
  booktitle = {ISICT 2003, 5th International Symposium on Instrumentation and Control Technology},
  year = {2003}
}
Zimmer, D., Böcker, J., Schmidt, A. and Schulz, B. Elektromagnetische Direktantriebe 2005 In: Antriebstechnik (2005)
Vol. 2 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Zimmer2005,
  author = {Zimmer, D. and Böcker, J. and Schmidt, A. and Schulz,B.},
  title = {Elektromagnetische Direktantriebe},
  journal = {In: Antriebstechnik (2005)},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {2}
}